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Directory of Electronic Organs

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Allen Baldwin Bancroft Bemore Bohm Bontempi Clavia Compton Conn Estey Everett Farfisa Gem Gulbransen Hammond Haven Johannus Kawai Kimball Korg Lowrey Orla Philicorda RiHa Roland Schafer & Sons Technics Thomas Tokai Viscount Wersi Wurlitzer Yamaha

Ace Tone
Logo, Web site link Combo Organ Web site
With more information on Ace Tone

Logo, Wikipedia web site Wikipedia page
Ikutaro Kakehashi, the founded of Roland, formed Ace Tone c.1960.
They made quite a number of combo organs during the 60's, and are one of the more well-known combo organ brand names.
Ace Top 1 1969
DemoA short demonstration on the Top 1
Ace Top 1


1 x 49 Key Manual
(12 playable as Bass notes)
8 tablet switches:- Double Bass; flute; organ; sax; reed & strings; treble brightener, vibrato.
5 panel controls:- master volume; Bass volume; Bass treble balance; vibrato depth & vibrato speed

Logo, Web site link More information on the Ace Tone Top 1
Ace Top 3
Demo Short demo on the Ace Top 3
Ace Combo Top 3 organ


1 x 49 Key Manual
Knobs: Volume, Vibrato
Tabs: Flute, Organ, Reed, Strings, Vibrato On/Off

Logo, Web site link More information on the Ace Tone Top 3
Ace Top 8
Demo Short demonstration on the Ace Top 8
Ace Top 8 Combo organ


Knobs: Volume, Tone, Balance, Vibrato D., Vibrato S.
Tabs: Bass 1, Bass 2, Flute 16', Flute, 8', Clarinet, 8', Trumpet, 8', String, 8', Flute, 4' String 4', Sustain 1, Sustain 2, Vibrato

Logo, Web site link More information on the Ace Tone Top 8
Allen Organs
Allen Organ Company Behind the Scenes
Allen Organs Being Built
1962 Custom Allen Organ
Test Run of new Allen Organ
Strand Theatre Mighty Allen - Ken Stroud
Clark Wilson demonstrates the Allen Theatre Organ
Diane Bish Signature Series Allen Organs

Allen Gyrophonic speaker
Allen organ consul
Logo, Wikipedia web site
Logo, Web site link
Organette 1953


2 x 44 Key Manuals
13 pedals

Source:- The Organ Blue Book
Rondo Special 1953
Allen Rondo Special


2 x 61 Key Manuals
25 pedals
Gyrophonic Projecto

Source:- The Organ Blue Book
T12A 1959
Allen T12A


2 x 61 Key Manuals
132 pedals
* Sustain
* Attack
* Chimes
Gyrophonic Projector
(* optional)

Source:- The Organ Blue Book
Self-contained Speakers {T12A)
Remote Speakers Only (T12B)
- Christopher Houlihan
Improvisation Niran Obasa
Fantasia Carol Williams
Coronation March Hector Olivera
Allen Q475 organ
Theatre Delux 1962


2 x 61 Key Manuals
32 pedals
3 Tremolos
3 Vibratos
External Speakers & Gyrophonic Projector
Memory Pistons
Source:- The Organ Blue Book
Crystal Carousel 1970
Allen Crystal Carousel


2 x 44 Key Manuals
13 pedals (Sustain)
'Flying Hammers'
Gyrophonic Projector

Source:- The Organ Blue Book
Continental Carousel 1970
Allen Continental Carousel


2 x 61 Key Manuals
32 pedals
2 Sets of Tone Generators
2 Presence Projectors
'Flying Hammers'
12 Presets
Wah Control

Source:- The Organ Blue Book
Theater III
Demonstration video
Allen Theater III
Baldwin Organs
Dwight Hamilton Baldwin
Dwight Hamilton Baldwin (1821 - 1899)(pic. left) was born in Erie County, Pennsylvania. D H Baldwin was a music teacher, he opened a music store in Cincinnati, Ohio in 1857. In 1862, he founded Decker Brothers Piano dealership and hired Lucien Wulsin, who became a partner in 1873 and the company name was changed to D. H. Baldwin & Company. Dwight Baldwin then merged the Hamilton Organ Company, a manufacturer of reed organs, and the conglomerate became the Baldwin Piano Company.
In 1935 the Baldwin company began experimentation in the electronic generation of musical tone In 1946, Baldwin released to market its first electronic organ, the Model 5. This was a comprehensive 2-manual and 32-note pedalboard instrument and was mechanically similar to a medium-sized pipe organ. This model was found in many churches and is still a fairly common model to be found, along with its later version, the 5-A. The Model 10 in 1950, a larger console with the same two-61-note manuals and 32 pedals, followed this. The Model 11 followed and included such features as chiff, celeste stops and percussions. These organs were so successful that the company name was changed to Baldwin Piano & Organ Company.
In 1953, the Model 45 was introduced for the home market. This organ had two 61-note manuals and 25 pedals and had 23 stops with three control levers. This led, in 1958, to the Model 45-HP, which included sustain percussion. In the meantime, spinet organs were developed and were commercialized as Baldwin Orga-Sonic. Some spinet and console organs with some changes in furniture design and features appeared under the name Howard. There were also sporadic attempts with optical-disc technology for tone generation.
1955 saw a revival in the classic theatre organs of the 1920s, and electronic organs started to emulate them in the early 1960s and Baldwin was no exception. Baldwin theatre organs were found as both spinets and consoles. The HT-2 was a full-size beast including the 32-note pedalboard, followed later by the HT-2R, which included a Rhythm Drawer featuring percussive drum sounds played on the pedals or Accompaniment manual. A unique feature of these organs was a set of pistons to produce the sounds of a siren or auto horn, just like the old theatre organs.
Baldwin organs were designed using the master oscillator system. This kept production costs and prices down but there was no way to break the "electronic syndrome" of the tone. In answer to this, Baldwin developed Panoramic Tone consisting of a slow-speed rotor in front of a speaker with built-in spring-type reverberation. They also developed a series of gradual-contact key contacts to eliminate key-clicks and imitate the pipe organ's slower attack and decay characteristics. Organists had mixed feelings about this slower attack and decay property.
In 1988 th Baldwin company purchased the keyboard division of the Wurlitzer Company and the combined operation became known as Church Organ System, Inc. In 1993, this operation ceased production.
Extract from Baldwin Organs History
Baldwin PR200
Bossa Nova Bob Jennings plays Bossa Nova by Jobim
Baldwin PR200


2 x 61 Key Manuals
32 pedals w/Sustain
Rhythm Percussion
Reverb & Repeat
Percussion Presets
Toy Counter

Source:- The Organ Blue Book
Baldwin Funster


2 x 37 Key Manuals
13 pedals
FunMachine Auto. Accompaniment
Minor Touch
Auto. Rhythm (9)
3 Solo Flute Pitches

Source:- The Organ Blue Book
Microcomputer Orchestra 1983
Baldwin Microcomputer Orchestra


2 44-Key Manuals
13 Pedals
67 Voices
Panoramic Sound
Super Syntha Solo
Preset Percussion
Sustain, Perc. Attack
Instant Orchestra with Orchestra riff
FantomFingers with Star Performers,
Fantom Touch
Vari-Pitch (slide)
FunMachine section
The Conductor
Solo Pro, Country, Duet & Theatre harmony
The Arranger Auto. Registration
Stereo RealRhythm (16x2)
Second Drummer
Drum Breaks
Manual Rhythm
72 x 1 -Finger chords w/Minor Touch
Key Selector Auto. 7th/6th chords
Auto. Bass

Source:- The Organ Blue Book
Studio II
John Dickinson plays
You Tube link icon You Tube link icon You Tube link icon You Tube link icon You Tube link icon
Baldwin Studio II organ
191 Marquee organ
Glenn Derringer
Part 1
Glenn Derringer
Part 2
Baldwin 191 Marquee organ


2 44-Key Manuals
13 Pedals
58 Voices
Panoramic Sound
Solo Syntha-Sound
Preset Percussion
Sustain, Perc. Attack
FantomFingers with Star Performers,
Fantom Touch
FunMachine Section
The Conductor
Solo Pro, Country, Duet & Theatre Harmony
The Arranger Auto. Registration
Stereo RealRhythm (16)
Second Drummer
Drum Breaks Manual Rhythm
72 x 1 Finger Chords w/Minor Touch
Key Selector Auto. 7th/6th Chords
Auto. Bass

Source:- The Organ Blue Book
The 190 Encore and 190 Marquee were basicly the same organ in different boxes, The Encore having a straight key panel and the Marquee a horseshoe panel as shown.
George Bancroft organ builder
George Bancroft was born in 1907 in Haworth. An Electronics Wizard he set up business renting radio sets, eventually setting up his own factory making them.
He experimented with early television but gave that up to make organs.
He had first become interested in organs shortly before the war when he was intrigued by the pipe organ in his local chapel, he went on to read books on organ building before making small electronic attachments to a harmonium and then experimenting with tone generators and filters. Here his skill in radio electronics became vital.
He always said that he would donate an organ to the first local church to place an order with him, the first instrument took two years to build, and was donated to the Bridgehouse Methodist Chapel in Haworth.

(George, 2nd left, with Frieda Hall at the organ at Bridgehouse Church)
Miss Freda Hall, played the organ several times and considered it to be the best in the world. She described it as the Rolls Royce of organs.

As his skill and knowledge developed he started to produce organs where each note had it's own generator, which was an expensive refinement at the time.
This effect brought his organs into line with a pipe organ, where there is a pipe in every stop on every note. At that time pipe organs were ten times the cost of George's organs. His organs also had other features, normally found on much more expensive organs such as the ability to produce tones similar in sound to an oboe, french horn or trumpet, and coupler controls which made a note sound one or two octaves higher or lower, thus producing an orchestral effect in both tone and volume.
George built his last electronic organ when he was 82 years old, which was a two manual instrument with bass pedals.
George Bancroft died in 1996

Extract:- George Bancroft, An Electronics Wizard
Click Icon
Halton Gill Church
Halton Gill Church Bancroft organ
Baleani organ
Quotes from FaceBook
Made in Italy.
Sold at the end of the 70s.
This was the cheapest organ to buy in an organ-store.
It was sold with bass-pedals. It sounded awful, but funny: you could mix the rhythms and change the noises, that way you could change the sound from bad to very bad
Bemore logo
Richard van Kooij
Richard van Kooij started the Bemore Instrument brand because he saw his favourite instrument losing the battle on the instrumental market. He believes that digital organs have become too complicated for most owners to use. Because of this and his love for this wonderful instrument, Richard and his team developed a brand new instrument which is very easy to use.

Genesis Home 2017
Theme from Cinema Paradiso
Theatre organ sounds
Morning in Cornwall
Bemore Genesis Home organ
The Genesis Home comes as standard with 2×100 digital amplification system (Class D) and a 17 note pedalboard. This however, can be tailored to customer requirements, i.e., 25 note pedalboard, and extra amplification by way of two floor standing speakers.
  • One page Graphical User Interface
  • The electronics are custom designed and built
  • Pedalboard is completely handcrafted
Genesis Pro
The Genesis Pro is available with or without amplification.  The amplification for the pro consists of two high quality floor standing speakers. Once again there is a choice on pedalboard with 17 or 25 notes.
Bohm Excellence 300
I'm still standing DirkJan Ranzijn

Lugano DirkJan Ranzijn

Party Time DirkJan Ranzijn

Bohm Excellence 300
Emporio 600

Dr. SchiwagoJames Last version
Claus Riepe
/ Lara's theme
BÖHM Emporio 600
Logo, Web site link Web site
Overture M3
Live Demo The Böhm Movie Collection

Heidi's MusicalMix
Bohm Overture M3
Logo, Web site link Web site
Sempra SE20
Greensleeves Claus Riepe
Bohm Sempra SE20
Sempra SE40
Without You Steffen Reiser
Bohm Sempra SE40
Bontempi is an Italian musical instrument manufacturer, best known for manufacturing low-priced, plastic-cased chord organs: small keyboard instruments in which the sound is produced by air being forced over reeds by an electric fan.
W 3700 1983
Bontempi W 3700
  • 2 x 49 key manuals
  • 1 x 13 note pedals (Sustain)
  • Vibrato (+delay)
  • Sustain & Percussion
  • 4 footages
  • 4 Orchestra presets
  • 4 Poly presets
  • Tremolo
  • Glide foot switch
  • 16 Auto Rhythms
  • Auto Arpeggio
  • Auto Accompaniment
  • One finger chord/ walking bass

Source:- The Organ Blue Book
W 3850 1983
Bontempi W 3850


2 49-Key Manuals
13 Pedals w/Sustain
Vibrato w/Delay
Sustain & Percussion
4 Footages
4 Orchestra Presets
4 Poly Presets
Glide Footswitch on EXP. pedal
Auto Rhythm (16) w/Break
Programmable computer Rhythm
Auto Arpeggio
Auto Accomp. w/Memory,
One Finger Chords
walking Bass/Alternate
Pro Bass

Source:- The Organ Blue Book
Logo, Wikipedia web site Wikipedia page
Casio Computer Co., Ltd. is a Japanese multinational consumer electronics and commercial electronics manufacturing company headquartered in Shibuya, Tokyo, Japan.
Its products include calculators, mobile phones, digital cameras, electronic musical instruments, and digital watches.
It was founded in 1946, and in 1957 released the world's first entirely electric compact calculator.
It was an early digital camera innovator, and during the 1980s and 1990s, the company developed numerous affordable home electronic keyboards for musicians.
Casio Symphonytron
Modular set-up with two Casiotone keyboards, tone cabinets and pedalboards.
Picture and information
Vintage Organ Group
Facebook page
All The Way
Cavendish 4000
Bryan Rodwell
Cavendish organ
Some Cavendish instruments are badged [Made In Italy By Ellectronicca Ltd. Exclusivly For Boosey And Hawks England]
If all Cavandish instruments originated from the same manufacturer is unclear.
Bryan Rodwell was involved in the specification of some of the top end instruments.

Extract :- The Organ Forum
Hans Nordelius
In 1983, Hans Nordelius (left) and Mikael Carlsson began to work in the basement of a home located in the southern suburbs of Stockholm, creating the world's first dedicated digital drum for the commercial market, called the 'Digital Percussion Plate 1'. In 1984 an improved version that could play four sounds from an EPROM was released under the 'ddrum' name with the now signature red colouring.
In 1995, Clavia released the Nord Lead. Iit popularized the virtual analogue type of synthesis. In 1997 the Nord Lead 2 was released, with many improvements, including increasing polyphony from 4 to 16 notes. The Nord Lead 3 was released in 2001, with a reworked sound engine, better D/A converters and monophonic after-touch.
In 1997 Clavia released the Nord Modular, a virtual analogue modular synthesizer. It allowed you to essentially build your own virtual analogue synthesizer. It too was later upgraded with the 2004 release of the Nord Modular G2, that gave it the same endless rotary knobs as the Nord Lead 3 and a larger keyboard with after-touch.
In 2001 the Nord Electro was released. It was designed to emulate the classical electromechanical keyboards like Hammond organ, electric piano and Hohner Clavinet. The pianos are samples but the organs are modelled using a "digital simulation". Clavia's current models here are the Electro 5, emulating a Hammond B3, a Farfisa and a Vox organ and containing samples of different electric pianos, the Nord C2 Organ, a dual manual instrument containing the organ section from the Nord Electro 3 as well as an emulation of a baroque pipe organ; and the Nord Stage 2which takes the organ and pianos from the Nord Electro and adds a virtual analogue synthesizer.

Extract:- Clavia History on Wikipedia
Nord C1 2007 - 2009
A Whiter shade of pale
Sadden Bridge
Nord C1 organ
The original C1 contains two 61-key manuals, laid out in a similar style to a Hammond Console Organ such as the B3 or A100.
An optional 27-note MIDI pedal keyboard is also available to purchase separately from Clavia.
A set of drawbuttons, similar to those found on the Nord Electro and Nord Stage control the drawbar levels of the Hammond and Vox emulations, or the voice tabs of the Farfisa emulation. Only one type of organ can be selected at once, though each manual has individual controls for the type of organ selected. There is an internal emulation of the Leslie speaker, or a real Leslie can be attached to an 11-pin amphenol connector.

Extract Nord C Series Wikipedia page Logo, Newspaper article
Nord C2 2009 ->
C Jam Blues
church organ
Nord C2D Organ Full Demo
Nord C2D organ
Logo, Newspaper article
The C2's pipe organ emulation, unlike the electric organs, is generated using samples instead of physical modelling. It includes 21 stops, and provides an emulation of the swell pedal (which behaves differently from a Hammond organ) and tremulant. The sound engine was improved, providing additional click levels and emulations of other models of Leslie Speaker.
In 2012 Clavia released the Nord C2D. It has the same form factor as the C2 model, but adds two sets of nine physical drawbars per manual and a set of two for the pedal board. This follows the Hammond B3 standard. Pre-set selection buttons has been added to the cheek blocks. The sound engine was also enhanced, including an improved key click and percussion model.

Extract Nord C Series Wikipedia page
3 M/E
Compton model 3M/E
Logo, Newspaper article Compton 3ME Addvertisement
The Stage
Thursday 24 June 1965
Image © The Stage Media Company Limited
Logo, Newspaper article Advertisement
The Era
Wednesday 12 August 1936
Image © Successor rights holder unknown.
Click Icon
Upper keyboard devoted to percussion instruments (Piano, harpsichord, guitar etc.). Built in reverb & sustain.
1965 retail 975gns (£1023 & 15 shillings (£1023.75)
Musical slide show of the Conn factory Logo, Wikipedia web site Logo, Newspaper article
C. G. Conn
The Conn musical instrument company was started by Charles Gerard Conn (1844 - 1931) (pic left) in 1875 producing a rubber mouth piece for trumpets. Conn had a distinguished military career, he was colonel of the 1st Regiment of Artillery in the Indiana Legion.
Following a number of law suits Conn sold up.
In 1915 all of Colonel Conn's holdings were bought by a group of investors led by Carl Dimond Greenleaf. The Conn Company was a leader in making band instruments.
The demand for band instruments was declining, in 1946, to maintain the company's position as a leader in musical instrument manufacture, they developed the 'Connsonata' electric organ.
By 1969, C. G. Conn, Ltd. was facing bankruptcy.
In 1970, the corporate offices were moved to Oak Brook, Illinois and during the following year the Conn Organ Division was moved to Carol Stream, Illinois.
In 1980 the company was sold to Daniel Henkin, who had served the company as an advertising manager. In that year Henkin sold the organ division to Kimball under the name of Conn Keyboards.

Extract:- C. G. Conn Wikipedia page
Conn 552
Conn 552
Somewhere Over the Rainbow
Conn 552 organ
Conn Organ 552 Theatrette This was one of their best and most popular organs ever made. The Theatre design is complemented by the horseshoe console and soft lighting plus matching theatre styled bench.
Conn 580

St Peter's Anglican Church Eric Barlow
St Peter's Anglican Church Charles Brown
Poinciana medley
A Foggy Day in London Town
Conn 580 organ
Conn 644 Martinique
Medley Demonstration
Conn 644 Martinique
Conn 652
RAF March-Stein Song
Medley Richard Mosher
Medley Adrian Rose
Medley Eric Lord
Conn 653
Classical Organ Sounds with Chimes
653 Theatre Deluxe

You Tube link icon
Conn 653 organ
Logo, Web site link Web site
The Cordovox name is probably more well-known for accordions.
The Cordovox line of electronic accordions was imported and marketed by Chicago Musical Instrument Co. which was also the parent company of Lowrey Organ Co.,
The companies of Scandalli, Settimio and Frontalini merged in 1946 to form FARFISA (Fabbriche Riunite Fisarmoniche Italiane, translated: United Italian Accordion Factories), which would go on to pioneer reed organs (air/mechanical type: Microrgan, Pianorgan, etc) and later (++about 1-2 years after the development of the 1st generation Cordovox) designing the World's first reedless, transistorized accordion,
The first 3 generations of Cordovox outfits/sets were made by Farfisa (Scandalli acoustic accordion section and organ tabs), and Lowrey Organ Co. (outboard organ tone generator, amplifier, pedal, cables, etc).

Logo, Newspaper article Article on the early history of Combo Organs in Italy
Cordovox CDX 0612
Logo, Web site link Web site


1 x 49 Key Manual
Knob: Astro Sound
Bass: Volume knob, tabs for On, Attack
Voice Tabs: Flute, Principal, Oboe, String, Brass, Brilliance
Vibrato: On, Speed knob
Cordovox CDX-o632
Cordovox CDX-0632
Logo, Web site link Web site


1 x 61 Key Manual
Astro Sound: Range knob, Speed drawbar.
Phase Shifter: Slow/Medium/Fast tabs
Bass: Manual Split Attack tab, drawbars for Flute Bass, Buzz Bass, Acc, On
Voice Drawbars: 16', 8', 5-1/3', 4', 2-2/3', 2'
Sustain: Long/Mellow/Medium/Brite tabs,
Volume drawbar
Percussion: 8', 5-1/3', 2-2/3', 2',
Decay (drawbars),
Mono Percussion,
Wha-Wha: On, Short/Long, Repeat Speed knob.
Cordovox CDX-0652


2 x 44 Key Manuals
Tab: Moog On/Off
Buttons: Piano, Sax, Guitar, Flute, Banjo, Clarinet, String, Trumpet, Horn, Preset
Tabs 1: Octaves: 1 & 2 Modulation: Rep, Sine/Square, Vib, Trem
Tabs 2: Glide, Sust
Tabs 3: Brass: Mute, Open Reed: Thin, Hollow, Full, Bright
Tabs 4: String: Bow, Pluck Strike, Pick Bell, Lunar
Left of Upper Keyboard:
Knob: Tuning
Black Sliders: Flute Voices: 16', 8', 5-1'3, 4', 2-2'3, 2' Mixture, Volume Lower, Volume Upper
*White Sliders: Filter: Contour, Color, Emphasis Modulation: Rate, Depth Glide, Volume
Left of Lower Keyboard:
Buttons: Coupler, Sustain, Bass
Sliders: Bass Min/Max, Guitar Bass, Vibrato Depth
Right of Lower Keyboard:
Buttons: Percuss, Repeat, Mono
Sliders: 8', 4', 2-2/3', 2', Decay Short/Long, Repeat Rate Slow/Fast

Logo, Web site link Web site
Included a single oscillator Moog with a number of preset sounds.
More information to be added soon
Music performed by Mike Hall

More information
Click Icon
Bryan Rodwell
Eminent advert
In 1923, the bakery clerk Jacob Vreeken (1899-1976) decided to start selling organs. Vreeken was already familiar with the instrument-he played the organ in the local church on Sundays.
To finance his enterprise, Vreeken gave organ lessons for 0,75 cents an hour and repaired old harmonium's.
"If they can't find me, they can't buy from me!", thus Vreeken. Out of every penny of profit, he spent half on advertising. (pic right)
These costs were so out of proportion, that he had to convince the tax office that he had indeed spent all this money on advertising.
In 1928, Vreeken left the premises where his shop was established, and moved to the centre of the small town of Bodegraven. Here, he started to import organs from Germany.
Using a bank loan, he bought as many used pianos and harmonium's as he could afford and made his way back into the organ business. Due to a tremendous amount of publicity, his instrument sales boomed.
In 1950, Vreeken started importing the electronic Multimonica organ from Germany. This was the beginning of his venture in electronic engineering.
Nine years later, he decided on the development of his first electronic organ with one manual, quite different from the organs that he had been importing from America and Germany.
In 1961, the first model was introduced, the Eminent 60. Sales picked up and in 1965, the production of the Solina organs started. Exporting organs became a substantial part of his business.
In 1969, the organ business relocated to Waddinxveen, where it acquired two factory buildings in order to obtain the required space for the expanded production.
One year later, Jacob Vreeken, by then 70 years old, resigned as managing director.
In 1990, Eminent commenced development of a new digital system. This system could be voiced in its smallest details, whereby the organs could be customized to fit every space in which they were installed.
This design still forms the basis of the newest generation of instruments today.
In 1994, Eminent Organs moved to a new building in Lelystad. Apart from the enhanced production facilities, the building also contains a 100 seat auditorium specially designed for the demonstration of organs, and for concerts.
Now, following developments in electronics and software, the Eminent organ continues to be able to fully meet the highest demands of its customers.

Extract:- Eminent web site
Eminent Cantate 20
Recital Martin Riessen
Widor toccata
Eminent Cantate 20 organ
Eminent 310
Equinoxe IV
Some Jean Michel Jarre
Eminent 310 organ
Used by Jean-Michel Jarre on 'Oxygene' and many other albums.
Eminent 370LX
Trumpet Voluntary
Eminent 370LX organ
Howard Beaumont
Kurt Baum
Eminent F225
Eminent 1500
Medley by unknown artist
Grand Theatre 2000
Eminent Grand Theatre 2000
Eminent Grand Theatre 2000
No recordings available at the moment
Estey Freedom II electric organ
Estey started producing electric organs in 1961. They had been building harmonium's since 1852
New York financier Arnold Bernard knew nothing of the music business when he took over the failing Estey Organ Company. Injecting cash into didn't help, so his next attempt to rescue it was to buy another company (this time a successful one), and let the other company sort out Estey into something profitable. That company was Magna. Bernard made Magna's president, F. Roy Chilton, the new Estey president.
Prior to Magna's involvement with Estey, Harald Bode had developed an electric tube-based organ. By 1959, it was too expensive to build and perhaps too heavy to compete in the market, so new electric organs were designed from scratch.
The early electric organs designed and built in Torrance. They used neon bulbs as oscillators. A sawtooth wave originated a signal for each note, and lower octaves were produced with frequency divider circuits. For the vibrato, reverb, and power sections, the organs would have looked a lot like the guitar amps at the time.
The 900 series electric organs were called the President Series. The list prices were in the $1,400 to $1,500 range, and the dealer cost was half of that. Exterior finish wood was the primary distinction between the different models. The 931 had five speakers (3 tweeters and 2 larger speakers), volume "expression" pedals, sustain draw-bars, two separate vibratos, and Hammond tank reverberation.
By 1966, orders for the 900 series organs were non-existent.
The 800 series organs was Estey's premium line of home organs. Early versions were tube driven, and later versions were advertised as fully transistorized.
The 801/802/805 was called The New Yorker. It had two 37-key overhanging keyboards, a 13 note foot pedal clavier, an expression pedal (volume), vibrato, and seven voices. The 851/852 was called The Philadelphian.
At minimum, this organ was produced from 1961 to 1966.
The Twin-City model was the 807.
The 500 and 700 series were transistorized electric home organs, usually with a single speaker The retailed in the $240 to $300. They all were 37-key, and various numbers of chords (40-72). Some had integrated rhythm/percussion devices. The 700P was a portable organ that came with a BP-1 battery pack.
The 721/722 were called the Americanna, and the 741/742 were called the California.

Extract:- Estey Organs history
1859 -
Everett Piano Company
Logo, Wikipedia web site Wikipedia page
The Everett Piano Company was a piano manufacturing company was a wholly owned subsidiary of the John Church Company.
John Church, Jr. established the company in 1859, and after taking partners into the firm, he incorporated it in 1885.
Other subsidiary companies included Cincinnati's Royal Manufacturing Company, which produced smaller musical instruments such as drums, violins, guitars, mandolins, and banjos.
Besides musical instruments, the John Church Company published large amounts of sheet music.
Orgatron 1935 - 1941

Organ Expressions
More pictures of the organ
Click Icon
Logo, Wikipedia web site Wikipedia page

Logo, Newspaper article Orgatron advertisement
Liverpool Daily Post
Thursday 20 July 1939
Image © Trinity Mirror. Image created courtesy of
Click Icon
Logo, Newspaper article Orgatron advertisement
Sheffield Independent
Saturday 05 March 1938
Image © Johnston Press plc.
Image created courtesy of
Click Icon
The Orgatron was an electronic organ originally developed in 1934 by , after a patent. A fan blew air over a set of free reeds, causing them to vibrate. These vibrations were detected by a number of capacitive pickups, before being amplified to create musical tones.
After the death of Hoschke in 1936, the Orgatron was manufactured by Everett Piano Company.
In 1946, Rudolph Wurlitzer Company bought the patent, and was manufactured in the period from 1947 to 1961.
In 1947 Major S. J. Wright wrote a description of how the Orgatron worked for Theatre Organ World.
Orgatrons were installed in at least three UK cinemas, The Cinema House, Rotherham, The Forum, Sheffield and Parade Cinema, Skegness. A Everett organ (Orgatron ?) was installed in a
Sheffield hotel.
Sheffield Evening Telegraph
Saturday 08 April 1939
Image © Johnston Press plc.
Image created courtesy of
and others were installed in Churches, the first at

Sheffield Daily Telegraph
Monday 03 July 1939
Image © Johnston Press plc.
Image created courtesy of
Farfisa Organs

Farfisa Beresford Les Bonner
Compact Duo
A Saucerful Of Secrets
Farfisa Compact duo
Professional 88
Farfisa Professional 88
259R Coronet
Retro Organ Series - 1
Farfisa Pergamon


2 49-Key Manuals
13 Pedals w/Sustain
Vibrato & Modulation
Poly Section
Mono Synthesizer
Vocal Chorus
Flute Drawbars
24 Presets
PARTNER L Auto. Rhythm (16) w/Variation
Easy Chord
Auto. Accomp.
Bass Variations
Synt. UFO & Glide
Leslie Output

Source:- The Organ Blue Book
Wizard 315 1981
Gem Wizard 315


1 61 -Key Manual
6 Presets
Magic Chord
Auto Rliythm (8)
Solo Ensemble Control
Auto Accomp w/Memory

Source:- The Organ Blue Book
Gem H 7000 1981
Prelude in E minor
Gem H 7000


2 44-Key Manuals
13 Pedals w/Sustain
Vibrato w/Delay
Reverb & Sustain
Solo Tibia & Percussion
Solo Orcliestral (5)
Orchestral Presets
Monotron Synthesizer w/8 Presets
Polytron Synthesizer w/6 Presets
PERFORMER 2 Auto Rhythm (15) w/Bass & Chord Modulation,
48 One-Finger Chords,
Orchestra w/Arpeggio
2-Speed Leslie

Source:- The Organ Blue Book
Gem Prelude
Widor Toccata
Gem Prelude


2 44 -Key Manuals
32 Pedals
5 Preset Thumb Pistons each upper & lower manual
4 Toe Studs
2 Couplers: Swell to Great and Great to Pedal
Crescendo and Express 11 pedals
Automatic Pedal Preset
Variable Depth Chorus
Pedal and Grande Organ Volume Controls
General Volume and Tone Controls
2-Channel Amplifier

Source:- The Organ Blue Book
Galanti (H6000 GEM)
Retro Organ Series


2 44 Key Manuals
13 Pedals w/Sustsin
Reverb & Sustain
Vibrato w/De!ay
Monotron Synthesizer
w/8 Pre-sets and Portamento
Polytron w/6 Presets
PERFORMER 2 Auto Rhythm, (15)
w/Bass & Chord Modulation,
One Finger Chords, Memory Orchestra w/Arpeggio
2-Speed Leslie
Headphone Jack
Source:- The Organ Blue Book
600 Magic Touch Organ Demo
Gulbransen N2 organ Demo
Shine On Harvest Moon and Pretty Baby Gulbransen 600 Series Organ

Theatrum Organ
Brian Sharp
Gulbransen organ
Logo, Wikipedia web site
Logo, Newspaper article
Axel Gulbransen
Axel Gulbransen (pic left) was born December 20th 1860 Oslo fylke, Norway. He died May 14th 1935
In 1904 he established the Gulbransen Piano Company.
In the 1920s Gulbransen made the first upright piano with a player piano mechanism in the same case, thousands of player pianos were manufactured by the firm under the Gulbransen and Dickinson name, Dickenson was a partner with Gulbransen in their player piano line.
In the electronic organ era, Gulbransen pioneered several innovations in the production of home electronic organs that became industry standards:
  • Use of transistor circuitry
  • Built-in Leslie speaker system
  • Chime stop and Piano stop
  • Automatic rhythm (built-in drum machine)
  • Automatic walking bass (bass accompaniment)
In 1957, Gulbransen released the first transistorized electric organ 'Gulbransen Model B', although its use of transistors was limited to the tone generators, and vacuum tubes were still used for the power amplifier.
Ownership of the Gulbransen name has changed several times since the 1950s. Around 1950, it was sold to CBS, then in 1964, merged with Seeburg Corporation, and production was once ceased in 1969. In 1985, Mission Bay Investments acquired the brand and produced Elka organs under the Gulbransen name. In 2002 or 2003, QRS Music Technologies acquired the brand and pianos were made by Samick.

Extract:- Gulbransen Wikipedia page
Equinox 380
Demo Gulbransen Equinox Demo
by Bob Snyder
Vintage Organ Group
Gulbransen Equinox 380


2 44-Key Manuals
13 Pedals w/Sustain
Reverb & Sustain
Vibrato w/Delay & Tremolo
Preprogrammed & Programmable Registration
DIGICHORD One Finger Chords (288) w/Display
Auto Rhythm (18)
Orchestral Percussion
Key Logic
Music Computer Auto-Accomp
Auto Arpeggio
Concert Chord Melody Chords
5-Channel Amp

Source:- The Organ Blue Book
Rialto 1975
Demo Gulbransen Rialto II Organ Demo

If I Had You
Deep Purple
Eddie Dunstedter
Christmas Medley 1
Gulbransen Rialto K
Eddie Dunstedter
Christmas Medley 2
Gulbransen Rialto K
Gulbransen Rialto II


2 61-Key Manuals
25 Pedals w/Sustain
Solo & Accomp. Pistons
3 Solo Perc. Presets
Tibia Sustain
Leslie &Chorus
Chimes & Glock
Synthesizer Section
Auto. Rhythm (16)
2 Drawbar Sections

Source:- The Organ Blue Book
Paragon 1976
Frenesi Martin Beaulieu

The Christmas song
Gulbransen Paragon organ


2 44-Key Manuals
13 Pedals
2-Speed Leslie
Piano & Harpsichord
Auto Rhythm (12)
Marimba & Chimes
Reverb & Sustain

Source:- The Organ Blue Book
Hammond Organs
Building Organs at the Hammond Factory
History of the Hammond Organ
How Do Hammond Organs Work?
Music For Our Church
80th Anniversary
Hammond Drawbars

For more information on the Hammond Range go to the Hammond section.
For more information on Hammond Players go to:-
Players :- T.W. Ardy - Jesse Crawford
Players :- Jackie Davis - Ken Griffin
Players :- Porter Heaps - Eddie Layton
Players :- Jimmy McGregor - Andre Penazzi
Players :- Harold Ramsay - Jaap Zeeland
Logo, Wikipedia web site
Logo, Web site link
Laurens Hammond 11th Jan 1895 – 3rd Jul 1973
Logo, Web site link Logo, Web site link
Logo, Wikipedia web site
Laurens Hammond
Laurens Hammond was born 1895 in Evanston Illinois. His father was a banker, whose job afforded the Hammonds an affluent lifestyle, he died shortly after Laurens was born.
Laurens was intelligent, and loved to tinker. He attended Engineering school at Cornell, served in World War I, and returned to work various jobs. But Laurens Hammond longed to be an "independent inventor", and he got right down to work.
Today we take electric power for granted, but in the 30's, the juice that came out of the wall was often unstable. Hammond invented a motor that ran at the same speed no matter what, and it was completely noiseless. Hammond hit upon the idea applying his motor to run a clock. Because it was silent, there was no "tick-tock", and his clock was an immediate success.
The great depression of the 1930's caused the bottom to fall out of the Hammond Clock Company. Hammond tried other applications, like an automated bridge table using his motor to drive a mechanism dealing cards to each player. The table gave Hammond a slight lift financially, but it, too, soon faded.
Looking for new ideas Hammond's thoughts considered using his motor to generate sound. Although Laurens Hammond wasn't a musician, he loved to hear the organ when he went to church with his mother as a child. Why not try to build an alternative to expensive pipe organs?
There was already an effort underway by other inventors to do exactly that, but no one had succeeded. Around 1900, an inventor named Thadeus Cahill came up with the Teleharmonium. The Teleharmonium was a huge, mechanical system utilizing garbage-can sized (and larger) cylinders to generate sounds. The design called for the music made by this beast to be piped into houses by means of telephone wires. Needless to say, this system failed, but the basic working idea had merit.
Using a much, much smaller design based on the ideas of Cahill's instrument, coupled with the synchronous motor, Hammond came up with what he called an "Electric Flute". It Worked! At first he thought it would be just a toy, a plaything, selling for thirty to forty dollars, but thinking again, he saw that this could be a major advancement in musical instruments, and proceeded to sketch out the blueprints for what would become the Hammond Organ.
On April 24th, 1934 Laurens Hammond filed for a patent on his musical machine. The paper was a whopper, spanning 18 pages and twenty thousand words. At that time the country's top industrialist was automaker Henry Ford, who loved gadgets of all sorts. He got wind of Hammond's patents, and sent men to Chicago to order six organs immediately. The problem was, that Hammond's Organ hadn't even gone into production yet.
Ford summoned Hammond to Dearborn to find out if he could help get the fledgling organ company up to speed. Hammond declined Ford's generous offer of material participation. It is a common misperception that Henry Ford got the first Hammond Organ. Mr Ford placed the first Order, but he didn't get the first organ.
The reality is actually much tamer. After Laurens got the company up and running, Hammond's Serial Number One went to a dealer in Kansas City, where it was used for years as a traveling demonstrator. Upon its retirement, it went to the Smithsonian in Washington, where it now resides.
The Hammond Organ was an immediate success, and before long Churches, Theatres and Concert halls were humming to the Model "A"'s sound.
On the west side of Chicago, near the original Hammond Factory, Black Gospel Churches began to use the Hammond Organ, and a tradition was born that has never stopped growing.

Extract Hammond organ company profile
Donald J. Leslie 13th Apr 1911 - 2nd Sept 2004
Logo, Wikipedia web site
Donald J. Leslie
Donald James Leslie was born April 13th 1911 in Danville, Illinois. The Leslie family moved to Glendale in Southern California in 1913. Donald went to Glendale schools, and graduated from Glendale Union High School in 1929. He had a knowledge of mechanics, radio and electronics. Donald had an interest in music, mostly piano and pipe organ.
Donald worked as an engineer for a firm that made parts for the Hammond Organ Company. He became interested in this new instrument, but there was something that wasn't right to his ear. Laurens Hammond intended his organ to play in churches and classical concert halls. Donald, who loved the Mighty Wurlitzer Theatre Organ wished that the Hammond Organ could sound a little softer. After some experimentation, Don Leslie hit on an idea that would put "motion" into the sound of Hammond Organ. The Leslie speaker was born.
Leslie thought he had hit on great idea. He took his invention to Laurens Hammond butLaurens Hammond hated the idea. He meant for his organ to play church and classical music. Don Leslie knew he was on to something, so he went into business for himself, producing the musical innovation that was called Vibratone-The Pipe Voice Of The Electric Organ'.
Theatre Organists Jesse Crawford was among the first to popularize the sound of the Hammond and Vibratone combination. In 1958 Donald Leslie again tried to sell his company to Hammond, but Laurens Hammond was stubborn, and rejected it again. Leslie then licensed his invention to many other organ manufacturers. The company was so successful, that Electro-Music never had to advertise the Leslie Speaker. Donald Leslie eventually sold the Electro-Music company.
Other patents awarded to Leslie included radio control of model trains, control and chlorination systems for swimming pools.
Donald Leslie died peacefully 3rd September 2004, at his home in Altadena, California

Leslie speaker c. 1942
History of the Leslie speakers
Speaker demonstration
Leslie speaker
Logo, Wikipedia web site Logo, Wikipedia web site
Leslie control switch
A Leslie speaker consists of a number of individual components. The audio signal enters the amplifier from the instrument. Once amplified, the signal travels to an audio crossover, which splits it into separate frequency bands that can be individually routed to each loudspeaker. Different models have different combinations of speakers, but the most common model, the 122, consists of a single woofer for bass and a single compression driver and acoustic horn for treble. The audio emitted by the speakers is isolated inside an enclosure, aside from a number of outlets that lead towards either a rotating horn or drum. An electric motors rotate both horn and drum at a constant speed depending on the manual switch setting, 'chorale'=slow and 'tremelo'=fast
The only control common to all Leslie speakers is a dial that controls the master volume. This is normally set up once and then left, since the organ's expression pedal normally controls the volume. Leslie recommended playing the organ at full volume with all stops (drawbars) pulled out and adjusting the volume to just before distortion occurs. However, the distorted sound of an overdriven vacuum tube amplifier can be a desirable sound, to the extent that modern Leslie simulators have an explicit "overdrive" setting.
Control of a Leslie speaker is normally catered for by an external two way switch (left) mounted on the front of the organ so the player can easily switch settings. The switch can be used while notes are being played, and the sound of changing between the two settings is part of the characteristic sound. On both settings, the treble horn rotates slightly faster than the bass woofer; about 50 revolutions per minute (rpm) for "chorale" and 400 rpm for "tremolo", compared to the woofer's 40 rpm and 340 rpm respectively.

Extract from the Leslie speaker Wikipedia page
The Haven Organs

The Alan Haven Organ
Jam Session
Haven organ
These organs were designed by the Jazz master Alan Haven and built by Crumar in the 1970s.
The organs were marketed for about 10 years.
Johannus Organs
Elizabethan Serenade Ecclesia D47
Introduction to Johannus Organs (UK)
Philippine Arena
Marche Triumphale
Fuga gigue BWV 577 Johannus Opus 250
Experience LiVE
Johannus organ
Logo, Web site link
Youtube logo- graphic link to the Johannus You tube channel
JVC Organs Slideshow
Music:- Alan Haven
Victor's produced it's first keyboard instrument, the EO-4420, in 1958. It was also the first electronic organ produced in Victor's native Japan.
This was followed with a long line of instruments and it seems with great success.
It wasn't until the late 70s / early 80s that Victor sold keyboards and organs outside Japan where it is know as JVC (Victor Company of Japan).
In America it's instruments were re branded under the Lowrey name.
JVC released it's last model in 1985, the NS-70. It kept producing this until 1991 when it closed it's musical instrument division.

More information
Click Icon
Brian Sharp
Sound Demo track
Brian Sharp
You Tube link iconBrian Sharp
Lil Darlin (1978)
Kawai T50
Brian Sharp medley
The instrument is all analogue, with every note individually generated.
Manual IV (4th one up in the centre 'bank') is the home of the most glorious sounding string and vocal ensembles.
Over at the left is a bank of classical pipe voicing's and the 4 manuals at the right are all duophonic orchestral synths.
Manuals 9 and 10 are portamento (for violin and whistle etc, with touch vibrato) and an arpeggio manual - triggered from the chords on Manual I.
Personal recollection AndyG
XR 9000
Demo Keyboard Exchange demonstration
Kawai XR 9000


Keyboard Solo
Keyboard ConductorSoloSynth I & II
Tibia/Perc,Preset Instrument
UpperTibia/Perc, Orchestra I & II, Preset Instrument, Synth I
LowerTibia, Orchestra I & II, Preset Instrument
PedalTibia, Orchestra, Synth I & II
TibieUpper16', 8', 5-1/3', 4', 2-2/3', 2', 1-3/5', 1-1/3', 1'
Lower16', 8', 5-1/3', 4', 2-2/3', 2', 1-3/5', 1-1/3', 1'
Pedal16', 8'
Percus.Upper5-1/3', 4', 2-2/3', 2', Click
OrchestraUpper8 tone colours x 4
Lower8 tone colours x 4
Pedal8 tone colours x 2
Preset InstrumentUpper8 tone colours x 4
Lower8 tone colours x 2
Caravan organ
Swinger 700
Kimball Electramatic Player Organ - Begin the Beguine
Kimball electric organ
William Wallace Kimball
The company was founded by William Wallace Kimball (left) in 1857 as an organ and piano retailer in Chicago. Kimball also sold less expensive reed organs. In 1890, Kimball hired Englishman Frederic W. Hedgeland to supervise the building of a portable pipe organ, about the size of a large upright piano. The pipe organ division of Kimball also built large, permanent pipe organs.
In 1959, the W.W. Kimball Company was purchased from the last remaining Kimball family heir by Mr. Arnold F. Habig, becoming a wholly-owned subsidiary of The Jasper Corporation.
In 1961, in conjunction with the relocation of Kimball piano production from Illinois to Indiana, the company formed Jasper Electronics Manufacturing Company to develop and produce Kimball organs for the home entertainment market.
At its peak during the 1960s and 1970s, the company was manufacturing approximately 150 electronic organs per day. Remaining true to the piano company's original sales slogan, 'Music For The Millions.'
Electronic organ production was phased out during the 1980s
Extract:- Wikipedia and Kimball web site
Fascination - K800
Kimbal K800


2 61-Key Manuals
25 Pedals (Polyphonic) w/Sustain
2-Speed Leslie
Vibrato & Reverb
Preset Pistons
Auto Rhythm (14)
Rhythm Break & Rhythm Modifier
Syntha Brass & Syntha Percussion
Chimes Preset
Cascading Strings
Accomp. Percussion
24 Magic Chords, Swinger Bass, Solo Chord, Memory, Solo Swinging Fingers, Swinging Chords
Audio Expander
Magic Tone Selector w/Knee Control

Source:- The Organ Blue Book
Sensation M300
Kimbal Sensation M300


2 44-Key Manuals
13 Pedals w/Sustain
2-Speed Leslie
Vibrato & Reverb
3 Preset Pistons
Auto Rhythm (14)
Rhythm Break & Rhythm Modifier
Syntha Brass & Syntha Percussion
Syntha Soloist
Chimes Preset
Cascading Strings
Entertainer w/ 24 Magic Chords,
Swinger Bass,
Solo Chord,
Memory Swinging Fingers,
Swinging Chords
Audio Expander
Magic Tone Selector w/Knee Lever
Source:- The Organ Blue Book
Temptation M75
Kimball Temptation M75


2 44-Key Manuals
13 Pedals w/SustaIn
Vibrato & Reverb
Repeat & Decay
Auto Rhythnn (12)
Cascading Strings
Chimes Preset
Syntha II Brass (1979)
Entertainer:- w/ 15 Magic Chords (24-1979),
Swinger Bass,
Solo Chord,
Swinging Finger
Source:- The Organ Blue Book
Logo, Wikipedia web site KORG
Wikipedia page
Korg was founded in 1962 in Japan by Tsutomu Katoh and Tadashi Osanai as Keio Gijutsu Kenkyujo Ltd. It later became Keio Electronic Laboratories.
Before founding the company, Katoh ran a nightclub. Osanai, a Tokyo University graduate and noted accordionist, regularly performed at Katoh's club accompanied by a Wurlitzer Sideman rhythm machine. Unsatisfied with the rhythm machine, Osanai convinced Katoh to finance his efforts to build a better one.
The company's first product, released in 1963, was an electro-mechanical rhythm device called the Disc Rotary Electric Auto Rhythm machine, Donca matic DA-20. The name "Donca" was an onomatopoeic reference to the sound the rhythm machine made. Buoyed by the success of the DA-20, Keio released a solid-state version of the Rhythm machine, the Donca matic DE-20, in 1966.
In 1967, Katoh was approached by Fumio Mieda, an engineer who wanted to build keyboards. Impressed with Mieda's enthusiasm, Katoh asked him to build a prototype and 18 months later Mieda returned with a programmable organ. Keio sold the organ under the name KORG, created by using the first letter of each founder's name plus "RG" from their planned emphasis on products targeted for the organ market (emphasizing the letters R and G in the word "organ").
Keio's organ products were successful throughout the late 1960s and early 1970s.
Korg BX3
Logo, Newspaper article Article on the Korg BX3
By Sound on Sound
You Tube link iconJerry Allen performing on a range of Lowrey Organs that were current at the time
F C Lowrey
Logo, Newspaper article F. C. Lowrey Obituary

Logo, Web site link Lowrey Web site

Logo, Wikipedia web site Lowrey Wikipedia page

Logo, Web site link Brochures
Organ Forum
Web site
The Lowrey organ company was founded by Frederick Charles Lowrey.
Frederick Lowrey was born 25th August 1871 in Chicago, Cook, Illinois, USA.
He was a Chicago-based industrialist and entrepreneur.
Educated at Oak Park High School, Oak Park, Cook, IL and the Chicago Athenaeum.
He was president of the Central Commercial Co., brokers and merchants. Chairman of the Board of Directors of Keystone Oil and Mfg. Co.; President Sterling Asphalt Co., and Leaf River Turpentine Co.; Director Fort Smith (Arkansas) Asphalt Co.; Chairman of the Board of Mantle Lamp Co., Chicago, and Herruth Oil Co.; Later owned partial interest in gold mine in Auburn, California.
In 1918 the Lowrey team developed a tone generator but it wasn't until 1949 that the first Lowrey branded product was launched, the Organo, this allowed organ tones to be played from a piano.
Frederick Charles Lowrey died 22nd November 1955.
1956 Lowrey became part of Chicago Musical Instruments and starts full scale production of Lowrey organs.
Lowrey Berkshire 1954
Tone demo
You Tube link iconRe Organises 2, Jerry Allen
Lowrey Berkshire organ


2 44-Key Manuals
13 Pedals w/Sustain
Percussion Kit (Optional)

Source:- The Organ Blue Book
Pete Townshend used a Berkshire Deluxe TBO-1 on Baba O’Riley & Won’t Get Fooled Again.
More information
Click Icon
Lowrey Brentwood
Lowrey Brentwood

Original Image
josh's Gallery
Click Icon

Specification (MS)

2 44-Key Manuals
13 Pedals w/Sustain
Manual Percussion
'Echo' Reverb
4 Perc. Presets
2-Speed Leslie (MSL - 1962)
Source:- The Organ Blue Book
Lowrey Holiday Deluxe 1957
You Tube link iconRe Organises 1, Jerry Allen, 1968
Lowrey Holiday deluxe


2 x 44 Key Manuals
13 pedals w/Sustain
Source:- The Organ Blue Book
Mike Ratledge of switched from a Vox Continental to a Lowrey Holiday Deluxe sometime between late 1966 and early 1967
Lowrey Jupiter
Lowrey Jupiter organ

Specification 1C44K

2 x 44-Key Manuals
13 Pedals
Glide Automatic Rhythm (7)
Built-in Cassette Unit
Source:- The Organ Blue Book
Lowrey Grande Marquee
Demonstration DVD [Part 1]
Demonstration DVD [Part 2]
Demonstration DVD [Part 3 ]
Claudia Hirschfeld
Downtown Steffen Palahnyuk
A Whiter Shade Of Pale Steffen Palahnyuk
My Way Steffen Palahnyuk
A Kind Of Hush Steffen Palahnyuk
Lowrey Grande Marquee organ
Logo, Newspaper article Brochure
Lowrey Rialto
Demonstration video 53 minutes
Lowrey Rialto organ
Logo, Newspaper article Brochure
Lowrey Inspire
Demonstartion Part 1
Demonstartion Part 2
Demonstartion Part 3
Lowrey Inspire organ
Logo, Newspaper article Brochure
Lowrey EZ 10
Information video
Lowrey EZ10 organ
Logo, Newspaper article Specification
MX 2
Mike Hall - Medley
Lowrey MX 2
Lowrey Journey
Lowrey Journey
Logo, Newspaper article Specification
Lowrey Stardust
Lowrey Stardust organ
Logo, Newspaper article Brochure
Lowrey Liberty
Dennis Awe
Lowrey Liberty organ
Lowrey Citation Theatre
Frank Renaut
featuring some 'different' Lowrey registrations
Lowrey Organo
Lowrey Organo

Lowery Organo in a Janssen Piano
Click Icon
Logo, Web site link Piedmont Piano Co
Web site
Lots of pics
The Lowrey Organo made by the Lowrey Organ Division of Central Commercial Industries Inc., Chicago, gives the player the facilities of a complete, small, one-manual organ but has no console of its own Its unique feature is that it utilizes the keyboard of any piano without impairing the regular operation of the piano.
For a description of how it works click here
1963 - 1986
David Nixon And The Mellotron
Inside a M400: How the Mellotron Works
Paul McCartney and the Mellotron
Mellotron M400 demo
Switched on Mellotron! Latest version
Logo, Wikipedia web site Wikipedia page
Developed and built in Birmingham, England, in 1963 the Mellotron uses tape recordings of each sound to generate the tone for each key.
It evolved from a similar instrument, the
The Chamberlin is an electro-mechanical keyboard instrument that was a precursor to the Mellotron.
It was developed and patented by Wisconsin inventor Harry Chamberlin from 1949 to 1956, when the first model was introduced.
Harry Chamberlin's idea for inventing the instrument came from his recording himself playing an organ. He formed the idea of playback music coming from an organ as a source of entertainment. He designed the first Chamberlin instruments as early as 1949.
The intention was for the instrument to function as a home entertainment device for family sing-alongs, playing the Big Band standards of the day.

but could be mass-produced more effectively.
The original models were designed to be used in the home, and contained a variety of sounds, including automatic accompaniments. Bandleader Eric Robinson and television personality David Nixon were heavily involved in the instrument's original publicity (See video).
The Mellotron became more popular after the Beatles used it on several tracks. It was subsequently adopted by the Moody Blues, King Crimson and Genesis, and became a notable instrument in progressive rock.
Later models such as the M400, the best selling model, dispensed with the accompaniments and some sound selection controls in order to be used by touring musicians.
The instrument became less popular in the 1980s due to the introduction of polyphonic synthesizers and samplers, despite a number of high-profile uses from Orchestral Manoeuvres in the Dark and XTC.
The digital age means you can buy a new Mellotron that uses digital samples rather than tape recorded. For more information visit Bigcitymusic
Minshall Organ
Burton Minshall

Click for more information
Logo, Web site link 120 Years of Electronic Music
Web site

Logo, Newspaper article Minshall organ Brochure

The Minshall range of electronic Organs were designed by Burton Minshall.
Burton Minshall’s design was originally intended as a home build project. This first amateur design eventually lead to the establishment of a successful organ manufacturing company selling mainly to churches and funeral parlours as well as the home organ market.
Minshall’s original plant in Ontario Canada moved in 1946 to Brattleboro, Vermont USA due to the proximity of Estey Organ Co.
In 1947 Minshall’s company merged with Estey to form ‘Minshall-Estey Organ Inc’ where they continued to produce electronic organs based on Minshall’s designs until 1954 when Minshall severed ties with Estey.
The Minshall company finally came to an end in 1955; Burton Minshall became ill, sold all of his shares in the company and eventually died in 1957. <
Extract:- The history of electronic music from 1800 to 2015, See web icon for more information
Model LC
Minshall Model LC organ
The top of the range Minshall LC Had a chorus generator, two full manuals and a twenty five note pedal board. The LC also had a second four octave set of tone generators, these gave a Celest effect
Model L
Minshall Model L organ
The model L had two full manuals and a twenty five note pedal board.
A full technical description of how this model works can be found here
Model S
Minshall Model S organ
The model S had had two 44 note manuals and 13 pedals.
It had very similar registration capabilities as the larger models but much lower price, this made it a very popular instrument.
Chord Organ
Minshall Chord Organ
The Chord organ could be played either as a single manual organ or as a chord organ using ten chord buttons.
The chord buttons were used with the lower-octave keys of the manual to produce ten chords in each of the twelve keys, 120 in all.
Motorola Scalatron
Motorola Scalatron

Image from Mike Bracchi's Vintage Organ Group collection
A Mike Bracchi Vintage Organ Group compilation
The Scalatron was an unusual microtonal electronic instrument developed in the early 1970s by Motorola as a new venture into the instrument market.
Orla closed their factory at the end of 2018
Orla GT 8000
Orla GT 8000
Ringway RS600
Organ Preset Bank
Blackpool Memories
Peanut Vendor Peter Hayward
The Syncopated Clock Peter Hayward
Ringway RS600
1960s -
The Philicorda was first produced in the 1960s by Philips.
The Philicorda came out of the Philips Natuurkundig Laboratorium in Eindhoven, under Tom Dissevelt and Dick Raaijmakers, who worked on electronic music and electronic musical instruments.
GM761 1973
You Tube link iconI'll Never Fall In Love Again
Kenneth Baker
Spinning Wheel
Alan Hawkshaw
Greek Ballad
Mimis Plessas
Philicorda GM761

Image from Mike Bracchi collection
20 minutes
Wilma Grobben
Vintage Organ Group

Brian Sharp
You Tube link iconOrgan Fiesta v1 - s1
Brian Sharp
You Tube link iconOrgan Fiesta v1 - s2
Brian Sharp
You Tube link iconOrgan Fiesta v2 - s1
Brian Sharp
You Tube link iconOrgan Fiesta v2 - s2
Brian Sharp
You Tube link iconOrgan Fiesta v3 - s1 & 2
Brian Sharp
You Tube link iconYou Make Me Feel Brand New & Can't Smile Without You
Brian Sharp
RiHa Orchestra
RiHa Syntone
Brian Sharp
Ikutaro Kakehashi
Ikutaro Kakehashi (left) was born in 1930 and was just two years old when both his parents died from tuberculosis. He spent most of his childhood living in Osaka, Japan.
Following World War II, Kakehashi failed to get into university on health grounds and so he moved to the Japanese island of Kyushu.
Kakehashi contracted tuberculosis in both lungs and was admitted to hospital, where his ill health stranded him for a number of years. Such was his health that Kakehashi was in hospital for 3 years and despite keeping himself busy with small personal inventions, his condition was becoming worse. Due to these circumstances, Kakehashi was selected as a guinea-pig to test a new drug, Streptomycin. This proved a stroke of luck, as within a year, his health had improved so much that he was able to leave the hospital
In 1954 and struggling to find a job, Kakehashi opened his own electrical goods and repair shop, which quickly became very successful. However, in 1955 he decided that he also wanted to begin developing electronic musical instruments that could produce simple monophonic melodies.
Kakehashi originally attempted to build his own Theremin, but soon found that it was extremely difficult to master. Kakehashi now became interested in creating an instrument with playable notes, so he set his inventive mind to it and created a four-octave organ using bits of telephones and transistor oscillators amongst other things! However, this original prototype did not sound quite as he had envisaged and so it was never mass produced.
Despite dabbling in other areas such as guitar amplification, Kakehashi ploughed on with his interest in organs and in 1960 he designed an organ that became the Technics SX-601, having been recommended to the owner of Technics via a friend of a friend. Ace Electronic Industries was now up and running.
In 1964, Kakehashi built the Ace Electronics R1 Rhythm Ace and decided to take it along to the NAMM show in Chicago. Unfortunately for Kakehashi, despite receiving interest, he did not receive any distribution deals. Kakehashi improved the R1 by adding pre-programmed patterns with the addition of a diode matrix that determined the position of each instrument in the pattern. This upgrade was released with the FR-1 Rhythm Ace, which was introduced in 1967 and the technology was snapped up by the Hammond Organ Company and featured on their latest organs.
Over the next few years, Ace grew and grew, working closely with Hammond and the company, under Kakehashi's guidance, designed a number of new guitar amps, effects units, rhythm machines and combo organs, which included their TOP range and the dual-manual GT-7.
In 1971 Kakehashi helped develop the Piper Organ, which was the world's first single-manual organ to incorporate a rhythm accompaniment unit and it went on to become one of Hammond's most popular products EVER!
As Ace grew, so it became more and more attractive to investors and as such, Kakehashi eventually became a minority shareholder in his own company! However, for many years this was not a problem as the majority shareholder, Kazuo Sakata of Sakata Shokaim, also shared an interest in organs and the two got on well. However, things did not stay so rosy forever...
When an industrial company, Sumitomo Chemical, bought Sakata Shokai, they also acquired Ace, but having no understanding or interest in Kakehashi's work, he soon decided to resign from his own company having found working together intolerable. And so it was, in 1972 he walked out on the business that he built up and that was now turning over nearly $40 million per year.
One month after leaving Ace, on 18th April 1972, Kakehashi set up another business called 'Roland Corporation'. Knowing his quality, having worked alongside him for years, the Hammond Organ Company immediately put in an offer for a 60% shareholding stake, but Kakehashi had learned his lesson and had no plans to be a minority shareholder in his own business again, so he decided to go on on his own, using his own money to fund the business.
Kakehashi rented a shed and employed seven staff that had also left Ace Electronics. Using his reputation, Kakehashi manage to convince parts suppliers to offer 90-day payment terms and then aimed to design, build and export a rhythm unit before the bills were due and the 'money-people' came knocking on his door! So there you have it - Roland actually began life in a shed!!!
The decision to export was a clever move by Kakehashi. Yamaha and Kawai had built up huge reputations and were now dominating the Japanese music market. With such competition Roland would have found it nigh-on impossible to earn enough money to survive, despite Kakehashi's drive and ambition.
Kakehashi set out on his travels, firstly to Canada, then to New York and also to Denmark.His intention was to get orders for a rhythm machine based on his reputation and ideas because as of yet, no Roland product existed! In the end he managed to obtain a small number of orders from each company and so he now had the money to fund the design and build processes.
Roland's first ever product was the TR-77, a rhythm-box that allowed you to merge patterns. Also in this range were the TR-55, which had a tabletop design, and the TR-33, which had a cut-out body shape for mounting underneath a piano or organ.
Over the next few years, Roland grew and grew, expanding their range as they went. They produced Japan's first synthesiser, the SH-1000 and are now known as one of the world's leading music companies.

Extract:- Roland Museum & Company History
Roland AT 70 1994
Is this the way to Amarillo Paul Atterbury
Cherokee Keith Edwards
Silver Bells organ medley Anthony Carter
Atelier AT-30 Organ demonstration
Roland AT70 organ
1994:- AT 70 was launched. The smaller AT 50 was launched in the same year.
Roland AT 90 1996
Roland AT90 organ
1996:- the AT 90 and smaller AT 30
Roland AT 80 1997
Earth Wind and Fire Medley - George Fleury
Roland AT80 organ
1997:- the AT 80.
Roland AT 'R' range 1990
Spaghetti Western Music Roland AT80R
1990 saw the launch of the R series.
Roland AT 'S' range 2001
2001 saw the 'S' range introduced
Roland AT 5 & AT 15 2002
2002 saw the launch of the baby of the range, the AT 5 and At 15
Roland AT 'SL' range 2004
Gabriels Oboe AT-80SL
Secret Love AT-80SL
Jersualem AT-80SL
Could It Be Magic AT-90SL
Oye Como Va AT-90SL
Axel F AT-90SL
Roland AT-80SL organ
Roland AT-80SL
organ" >
2004 saw the SL range introduced.
Roland AT 900, 800 etc 2009
Roland AT-900 Organ Ryoki Yamaguchi Super Trouper Atelier AT 900C
Csardas AT-900 Platinum Edtion - Hector Olivera
Roland AT-900 organ
Roland AT-900
2009 brought the 00 range to the market, 800, 900 etc.
Roland Combo AT-350C 2011
Medley Elizabeth Harrison
Swinging Safari Elizabeth Harrison
Roland Combo AT-350C
Roland Combo AT-350C
2011 saw the launch of the Combo AT-350C.
Schafer & Sons
Schafer & Sons OS 7P
Schafer & Sons OS 7P


Organ:- Flute 16', 8', 4', 2'; Perc 4'; Full Organ; Jazz Organ; Sustain; Footages 8', 4'

Bass Pedalboard:- Flute 16', 8'; Sustain; Percussive; Volume

Accompaniment:- Flute 8', 4'; Melodia 8'; Cello 8'; Volume

Preset:- On; Piano; Harpsichord; Vibraphone; Violas, Violins; Loud; Brass; Accordian; Pan Flute

Monotron:- On; Trombone; Trumpet; Reed; Solo Ensemble Control; Modulation; Synthy Solo; Synthy Wah; Volume

Stereo Phaser

Reverb/Computer/Attack and Release/Pause

PMC Rhythm:- Tempo; Volume; Beat; Break; Hand Claps

Auto Magic:- Drum On; Manual Bass; Automagic; Arpeggio; Touch; Magic Chord; Memory; A/B Variation

Auto Maestro

Source:- e-bay add
Demo track

More information
& Picture
Click Icon
Link to the Discogs page
The Schober Organ Company was headed by
Richard H. Dorf,Richard Dorf
Richard Henry Goldfogle Dorf
1921 - 1981
was an electronic engineer, prolific author on the subject of vacuum tube electronics and electronic organs, and the head of the Schober Organ Corporation
Click Icon
a well-known technical writer and engineer in the electronic musical instrument [Organ] industry of the 1950s-1970s.
The Schober Theatre model was introduced in the late 1960s, competing with other organ kits like the Thomas (sold at normal retail outlets and in kit form via Heathkit) and Artisan. The Schober Theatre Organ was sold (for around $1700, pre-inflation $$) until the company's demise in the 1970s, when President Richard Dorf passed away.
More information
Click Icon

Technics SX FA1 Organ
The First Noel alla Bach- Jim Harris
Canadian Sunset
Harbor Lights - Misty - Old Cape Cod
I'm in the Mood for Love
I'm Looking Over a Four Leaf Clover
Technics SX FA1 Organ
Technics SX FA1
Technics U90
Several tracks from
Brian Sharp's 'Nighthawk' album
U90 Pro
The sounds of the U90
Technics Pro 90
Technics U90
Part of the Chicago Musical Instrument Co.
Short demo tune
Various sounds and functions
What makes it work pictures of the insides
Clavoline keyboard

Logo, Web site link Clavoline information Web page
Click Icon
The Clavioline was designed to be a light portable electronic keyboard aimed at pop musicians of the time and became one of the most popular electronic instruments during the fifties. The Clavioline was a monophonic, portable, battery powered keyboard instrument.
The first version of the instrument appeared in 1947 and was originally designed by M. Constant. Martin in 1947 at his factory in Versailles, France
An expanded concert version was produced in 1953 by René Seybold and Harald Bode, marketed by the Jörgensen Electronic Company of Düsseldorf, Germany
Somewhere Over The Rainbow
A short introduction to a unique instrument
The Ecstasy of Gold theremin & voice
An overview for composers and music lovers
Once Upon a Time in the West Katica IllÉnyi
Logo, Wikipedia web site Wikipedia page
While not an electronic organ in the sense that it has no keyboard it deserves a mention as the first electronic musical instrument manufactured.
Patented the device in 1928, the instrument's controlling section usually consists of two metal antennas that sense the relative position of the thereminist's hands and control oscillators for frequency with one hand, and amplitude (volume) with the other. The electric signals from the theremin are amplified and sent to a loudspeaker.

Thomas Organs
Born Free Bob Ralston
Lawrence Welk Show
Windmills of Your Mind
Harold Smart
Edward G. Thomas founded the Thomas Organ Company in 1875. Their first instruments were pipe organs and they later manufactured reed organs as well. Thomas George invented the Thomas electronic organ after having been involved with previous organ developments. In 1956, with the financial backing of Joe Benaron, he reorganized the Thomas Organ Company, headquartered in Sepulveda, California
The first Thomas organs had one manual and about ten stops. These stops were dial controls and operated just like the volume control on a television set. These early models used a shared-generator system, which utilized one generator for every two adjacent notes. Soon, this clumsy system was abandoned and Thomas went to master oscillators. Two-manual and pedal models with a larger number of stop dials were introduced and the dials eventually gave way to conventional stops with a minimum of dials for less important functions.
Thomas went to transistors in a hurry. Because of the room inside the console this saved, more features were developed that put Thomas into a position of eminence. They introduced several features that became standard in the industry. The most important of these was Repeat Percussion, which could be played from either or both manuals. This had great appeal to the organ customer as now one could produce the sounds of a banjo, marimba, mandolin and a host of others automatically. This made its way into all other home and entertainment organs. Another famous feature was Vibra-Magic. When this stop was activated, vibrato was withheld on short notes, but when a note was held longer, vibrato was added gradually to whatever vibrato setting the organist selected. It bore an uncanny resemblance to a violin being played. Thomas also included a trigger-attack percussion and a sustain system for virtually any percussion effect. The built-in Leslie speaker added great richness and depth to the tinny, poorly filtered sounds of the organ.
A unique feature of the Thomas spinets was their 13-note pedal board, which was arced inward to simulate console pedals. They were too small for heel and toe playing and they were only one octave. The Concert Serenade and the Lawrence Welk had two 44-note manuals and 25 short pedals. The VL-5 had the same spinet manuals with a 25-note pedalboard that went under the bench as a console does. The Model 800 Celebrity had two 61-note manuals and a 32-note, flat "Princess (narrow)" pedalboard, but that was later revised to a standard 25-note pedalboard. Their only other 32-note pedalboard organs were the Impresario theatre model, the Model 710 church organ and the Model 900 Palace three-manual theatre organ. These three organs had pedalboards that conformed to A.G.O. specifications.
There was one area of the market that Thomas cornered. They made a successful line of small, inexpensive spinets perfectly geared for home use. The manuals had 37-notes and there were 13 pedals with about a dozen stops and a few dial controls. These "baby" organs had attack percussion, repeat and a Leslie speaker. Not a bad deal for $500.00 in the 1960s! These organs were found in homes and apartments and purchased by parents who wanted to see if the children were interested in playing it. If they were, a trade-in for a better instrument could be made and if there was no interest, not much money was lost.
Heathkit in Michigan manufactured several smaller models of the Thomas organ in kit form. These proved very popular as the price was lower because the customer assembled it himself. Thomas also manufactured organs for Sears, Roebuck & Co. under the name Silvertone and you could buy them at any Sears store.
In the 1960s, the Thomas Organ Company was the importer of Vox combo organs from Italy. This brand of instrument was used by many rock and roll groups, most notably, the Beatles. The Vox Continental was a very popular model. The Thomas Organ Company bought the manufacture rights to the Moog synthesizer. Professional entertainers bought many of these. Thomas produced an organ using the Moog name utilizing the synthesizer. They also produced Thomas Organ Model 370 Monticello, which was a standard spinet and included a built-in synthesizer incorporated into the upper manual with its own division of stops.
In 1979, Thomas Organ Company was one of the first big organ companies to go out of business. It vanished as a corporate entity. In 1997, the Thomas Organ Company was again reorganized using digital technology. Their modern instruments are worthy of note. Their sound is excellent with a wide variety of models to choose from.

Extract from Thomas Organ History
Californian Here I Come
Thomas Organ Californian
The Thomas Californian was the first organ to have a Wah pedal built in!
The genuine Crybaby circuit was designed for the broader frequency spectrum of the organ in this case and shared the same pedal as the volume, by kicking in the beginning of the sweep just past full volume.

Extract from You Tube description of the organ. See above.
Thomas Celebrity
Thomas Impresario organ
Thomas Impresario
Thomas Monticello organ
Thomas Monticello
White Elephant CDX-0652
Trianon 606F
After The Lovin'
Byron Melcher
Quando Quando
Harold Smart
Slide show
Tony Pegler
Thomas Playmate organ
Thomas Playmate
Tokai Facebook Page
Logo, Web site link Web site
MD 10
Tokai MD 10
Tokai MD-10


2 x 44 Key Manuals
13 pedals

16`, 5 1/3`, 8`, 4`, 2 2/3`, 2`, 1 3/5`, 1 1/3`,1`
Eletric Piano, Piano, Vibes, Jazz, Organ, Accordion, Pipe Organ, Strings, Trumpet, Trombone, Clrinet, Flute

16`,8`,4`,2` Acoustic Organ, Slow Strings, Molow Brass

16`,8` Eletric Bass, Acoustic Bass, Slap Bass

Logo, Web site link Tokai MD 10 Web site
TK 70
Demo Facebook video
- Jesu, Joy of Man's Desiring
Tokai TK 70


2 x 44 Key Manuals
13 pedals
Flute 16`, Flute 8`, Flute 4`, Fute 2`, Clarinet, Oboe, Strings
Flute 16`, Flute 8`, Strings
Organ, J. Organ, R. Organ, P. Organ, Piano, Vibes, Accordion, Trumpet

Logo, Web site link Tokai TK 70 Web site
YX 200
Tokai YX 200
Tokai YX 200


2 x 44 Key Manuals
13 pedals
Piano, E-Piano, Harpischord, Drawbar Organ, Reed Organ, Percussive Organ, Rock Organ, Church Organ, Accordion, Vibes, Strings, Brass, Trombone, Trumpet.
Organ, Strings, Synth Brass.
Brass 8`, Picket Brass.

Logo, Web site link Tokai YX200 Web site
YX 300
Tokai YX300
Tokai YX300


2 x 44 Key Manuals
13 pedals
Organ 1, Detune Organ, Rock Organ, Percursive Organ, Reed Organ, Drawbar Organ, Church Organ 1, Church Organ 2, Piano, Eletric Piano, Vibraphone, Strings, Trumpet, Sax, Flute, Acordion, Hamonic, Acoustic Guitar, Strings2, Trombone, Oboé, Choir AAHS, Lead2, Fantasy, Pan Flute, Synth Bass, Synth Voice, French Horn, Brass Section, Blown Bottle, Lead3, Atmosphere`
Organ 1, Church Organ, Strings, Tremolo, Strings, OFC, Memorizar

Logo, Web site link Tokai YX300 Web site
Facebook Page
Twitter Page
Instagram Page
YouTube channel
Vermona 'Solist' Organ
Peter Franz
Vermona Formation 3
Logo, Web site link Web site
The first VERMONA products were made in the 1970's and even before there were many organs and amplifiers available that were made by the same people and branded with Weltmeister or Böhm Electronic.
Vermona are still in business making Synthesizers,Effects boxes, Drums & Percussion modules.

See website
Viscount has, from its inception, dominated the UK market for good value home practice organs.
Viscount was a dominant supplier of ‘home entertainment instruments in the 1970’s and 80’s
This initial success was driven largely by price, which set a brand 'perception' of value but not quality. As the organs were not ‘voiced’ to replicate the sound of a good English pipe organ.
The initial owner of Viscount Distribution in the UK was not an organist and made no determined attempt to improve the voicing even though the platform was more than capable.
In 2006, and bought the UK Distribution rights of Viscount and founded Viscount Classical Organs Ltd.
2008 saw the introduction of the physical modelling platform,
Physis,Information on Physis Technology?
to generate the organ sound.
C110 Grande Classe 1972
Viscount C110 Grande Classe organ
Viscount C110 Grande Classe


2 44-Key Manuals
13 Pedals w/Sustain
Vibrato &Reverb
2-Speed Leslie
Upper Manual Percussion
Auto. Rhythm (10)

Source:- The Organ Blue Book
Fair Lady 1979
Pictorial tour
Viscount Fair Lady Organ


2 44-Key Manuals
13 Pedals w/Sustain
Vibrato & Reverb
Sustain & Repeat
Auto. Rhythm (8) w/ One Finger Chords & Memory
Locking Roll-top
Deluxe (1980) had 5 presetts

Source:- The Organ Blue Book
Viscount Dolly organ


2 x 37-Key Manuals
13 Pedals
Auto Rhythm (6)

Source:- The Organ Blue Book
Chorum 40
Italo Mattavelli
Chorum 40
The Wersi company started in Germany, Europe. In 1969 two brothers (W.E & R. Franz) worked in the basement of their parents' house to produce the first Wersi instruments.
By the 1970s, the company had established a successful kit development system that allowed customers to build the then state of the art instruments in their own home, at their own pace and at considerably reduced costs.
By the mid-1970s, artists such as Franz Lambert and Klaus Wunderlich had switched to playing Wersi on their international tours and records.
The 1980s saw Wersi introduce the CD-Line. The Spectra was the wonder of the 1987 Musikmesse and next to the Wersi Helios, is one of Wersi's biggest selling instruments to date.
In the 1980s two huge factories were constructed in the Wersi-hometown of Halsenbach, Germany. A large concert auditorium, offices, R&D labs, factory production area and metal works and paint spray factory.
In the 1990s, Wersi developed innovations such as the Livestyle upgrade for the CD-Line, Golden Gate, PhonX, Performer and Pegasus keyboard.
In the late 1990s, Wersi developed the OX7 drawbar module and set to work on a totally new generation of instruments... the OpenArt-System (OAS) line.
The OAS instrument line consisted of professional arranger keyboards and organs and are PC based. In 2001, the first version of the OAS instrument line was released running on the unique OAS software.
In 2010, Wersi was purchased by the European musical distribution company, Music Store Professional as the official distributor and by the Chinese musical instruments producer, Medeli. The new Pegasus Wing keyboard was launched at the Musikmesse Frankfurt in April 2011.

Extract from the Wersi Wikipedia page
Wersi Direct Podcast Logo, Web site link
Wersi Comet 1983
20 minutes
A selection of popular songs played by Ady Zehnpfennig
Wersi Comet organ
Wersi Comet


2 49-Key Manuals
13 Pedals w/Variable Sustain
7 Drawbars with 2 Couplers - Upper
3 Drawbars with 2 Couplers - Lower
12 Fixed Stops - Upper
12 Fixed Stops - Lower, through Couplers
String Orchestra
Special Effects/Brass, Jiff, etc.
20 Total Organ Pre-sets
CXI Programmable Rhythm
CXI Programmable Accompaniment

Source:- The Organ Blue Book
MODEL 10T Portable (as picture) MODEL 10 S full case
Wersi Helios
A tour of the Helios Part 1
A tour of the Helios Part 2
Star Wars Klaus Wunderlich
Christmas festive medley
Wersi Helios
Wersi Helios
Logo, Newspaper article
Wersi Gala
Glenn Miller Medley Florian Hutter
Samba Medley Florian Hutter
The Girl from Ipanema Florian Hutter
ABBA Medley Florian Hutter
Wersi Gala
Wersi Gala
Caravan :- Florian Hutter
Strangers In The Night :- Florian Hutter
Amorada / Tico Tico :- Florian Hutter
Misty / As Time Goes By :- Florian Hutter

W4SKT (1977)
Wersi Galaxy
W3T Saturn
Wersi Saturn
Wersi Saturn
Wersi Arcus
You Tube link icon Somebody Loves Me
John Dalley
From the album Satin, Latin and Swing
You Tube link icon Boogie Me
John Dalley
From the album Satin, Latin and Swing
You Tube link icon Isnt It Romantic
John Dalley
From the album Satin, Latin and Swing
Wersi Arcus
Wersi Arcus
Wersi Wega

MedleyStef Meeder
Wersi Waga organ
Wersi Waga
Wersi Atlantis
Ping Pong Florian Hutter
The Thorn Birds Rhapsody Florian Hutter
The Girl From Ipanema Florian Hutter
Samba Medley Florian Hutter
All Of Me / Ramona Florian Hutter
Wersi Atlantis
Wersi Atlantis
Wersi Spectra
drawbar demo
Wersi Spectra
Wersi Spectra
Wersi Performer
Some Enchanted Evening Jon Smith
Theatre Organ Medley Jon Smith
Eine Kleine Nachtmusic Claire Greig
Ski Sunday Claire Greig
Wersi Performer
Wersi Performer
Wersi Scala
Jalousie David Dunlap
Amor David Dunlap
Mr Sandman David Dunlap
Green Eyes David Dunlap
O Mio Babbino Caro David Dunlap
I Dreamed A Dream David Dunlap
Wersi Scala
Wersi Scala
Russian Medley Brett Wales
More _ Chris Hopkins
In Concert Claudia Hirschfeld
Rock n Roll Franz Lambert
Wersi Louvre
Wersi Louvre
All Time Swing Medley Florian Hutter
Autumn Leaves Florian Hutter
Feelings Florian Hutter
Moonlight Serenade Florian Hutter
Dornenvögel Rhapsody Florian Hutter
Cavaquinho Florian Hutter
Wersi Sonic
Wersi Sonic
Pergamon Sonic OAX 1000
Demo Robert Bartha

Barber of Seville Claudia Hirschfeld
Wersi Pergamon organ
Wersi Pergamon


3 X 76 Note Keyboards
Velocity Sensitive,
Weighted with Aftertouch
25 note Pedalboard
13.4' Full Colour Touch Screen
Multi-Split Mode/Both Keyboards
Realtime Drawbar System 9 Upper/ 7 Lower
16 Sound Layers Per Keyboard
Over 1500 Factory Long Wave Sounds Available
Over 500 Styles /150 Audio Styles
Assignable Effects Buttons
4 Channel Surround
How to assemble the WLM "Hit" portable electric organ. (Now that's easy)

Krzysiek Duda
WLM Beat 4900 RPLA 55
You Tube link icon Adagio for Strings
Interesting pictures inside the organ
You Tube link iconKrzysiek Duda
WLM Organ
Logo, Wikipedia web site Wikipedia page

Logo, Web site link Web site with more on the WLM range
The name of the company was based the initials of the founders Alf Wager, Jorma Lauluma and Olli Moisio.
The WLM tones were based on a Blue wave generator, in which the pure sine waveform tones were produced by electromagnetic tune wheels (tonewheels) as in Hammonds, but were more economically produced by the use of MOS and CMOS microcircuits.
The WLM organs could also electronically produce other sound effects of found in the Hammond sound, such as "key-click" or "percussion" and sound distortion as a result of over- amplification.
The control of WLM tones and other sound features was also carried out by the drawbar (the same as Hammond). The slides of octave tones were white, the quintile and threshing lines were black. The Doppler effect- based sound fading effect was implemented with a two-speed, rotating speaker like a Leslie device.

Extract & translation:- Wikipedia
Wurlitzer electronic organ Logo, Newspaper article
Wurlitzer 555 Orbit III
The tracks below are all played by Bill Skidmore
You Tube link icon You Tube link icon You Tube link icon You Tube link icon You Tube link icon You Tube link icon You Tube link icon
Wurlitzer 555 organ
Wurlitzer 555
The model 555 was a solid state organ that mimicked the four families of organ tone, Flute, Diapason, String and Reed.
In addition to the the instrument generated other sounds using the Orbit III synthesizer. this included sine waves in 16', 8', 6-1/2', 5-1/3', 4', 2-2/3', 1 3/5'. 1-1/3'. The synth also had preset sounds; Reed, Brass, String, Banjo, Harpsichord, Electro Piano, Vibes, Xylophone, Glock & Chimes.
The Orbit III had its own 25 note keyboard above two 44 note keyboards and a 13 note pedal board.

4460 1961
Wurlitzer 4460
Wurlitzer 4460


2 61-Key Manuals
25 Pedals
Vibrato & Reverb
Source:- The Organ Blue Book
Wurlitzer 950
Alley Cat
Something Stupid
Fly me to the Moon
When I'm Sixty Four
I'm going to sit right down and write myself a letter
Wurlitzer 950

Original image Ken Rockwell
Click Icon


2 x 61 Key Manuals
25 pedals
Upper:- Diapasion 8',Strings 8', Oboe 8', Trumpet 8', Kinura 8'.
Tibia 16' , 8', 4', 2-2/3;, 2', 1-1/3', 1'.
Harp, Piano, Harpsichord, Hawaiian Guitar, Sax, trombone, Clarinet, Wah-Wah trumpet.

Lower:- Tibia 8', 4', 2'.
Principal 8', String 8', Cornet 8', Octave 4', Violina 8'

Pedal:- Bourdon 16', Principle 16', Flute 8', Guitar bass
Source:- Wurlitzer flyer

Logo, Newspaper article A lot more information on the 950
Model 4037
The tracks below feature Glenn Derringer's demo of the Wurlitzer 4037 Organ featuring the then new and unique Orbit 3 Synthesizer.

You Tube link icon You Tube link icon You Tube link icon You Tube link icon You Tube link icon You Tube link icon
Wurlitzer Model 4037
Wurlitzer Model 4037
Orbit III
Logo, Web site link
The Orbit III is an unusual, but not at all rare, basic monophonic synthesizer.
It was included as the third manual on many different Wurlitzer home organ models since its introduction in 1971 (models 4037, 4373, 4573, 555 and others).
It has a basic envelope that includes attack and sustain, a filter of sorts (called "wah-wah" - that's the kind of sound it makes), and an LFO (called "modulator" in Wurlitzer parlance). The LFO has settings for rate and "deviation" (depth).
The "second touch" feature is a crude after touch function, which you can assign to affect either the LFO or the "slide" function. Each synthesis function can be completely toggled on and off via push button.
The sound of the synth is modified by a row of organ-style buttons that affect the timbre and the range.
Wyvern organ
Wyvern organ
Logo, Wikipedia web site Wikipedia page
Kenneth Burge
Wyvern is a British company with a proud history of pioneering design and innovation that started in the early 1950's, when Kenneth Burge, a brilliant young electronics engineer began developing designs for early electronic organs, opening his first organ building factory in 1959.
At this time, Arthur Lord, former theatre organist and broadcaster for the BBC, was researching tone generation with his friend Leslie Bourn - then Technical Director of John Compton Organ Company and inventor of electro-magnetic and electrostatic methods of tone production. Arthur Lord joined the company as General Manager.
In 1966 Kenneth Burge founded Wyvern Organs and two years later he invited Arthur Lord to join him as artistic advisor. The company invented many new systems including: "diode-keying" - eliminating "key-click" and Graduated Frequency Attack - a means of varying attack rates for notes of different pitch. These were major advances in early analogue instruments and were copied by other manufacturers throughout the World.

A look at Yamaha's Electone Organs of the 60s & 70s
Logo, Web site link
Yamaha D1 1959
Yamaha Electone D1
Yamaha Electone D1
Electone museum page
The first Yamaha Electone electronic organ. Used Analog Technology
Extract from the Yamaha Museum web site
Yamaha C-2B 1967
Yamaha Electone C-2B
Yamaha Electone C-2B
Electone museum page
The Yamaha Electone C-2B Used Analog Technology
Extract from the Yamaha Museum web site
Yamaha EX-21 1968
Yamaha Electone EX-21
Yamaha Electone EX-21
EX 21
Electone museum page
The first of Yamaha's ultra-modern stage instruments. The EX-21 was released only as a prototype.
The model number "EX-21" represented the phrase 'The Electone model for the 21st century.'

Extract from the Yamaha Museum web site
Yamaha EX-42 1970
Demonstration Miguel Kertsman
The Good, The Bad, and The Ugly Theme
There are such things Hitoshi Toshi Asano
Alice Blue Gown Hitoshi Toshi Asano
Baroque Moods
Hidemi Saito
You Tube link icon
Yamaha Electone EX-42
Yamaha Electone EX-42


2 61 Key Manuals
1 37-Key Solo Manual
25 Pedals w/Sustain
Portamento Strip
Preset & Toe Pistons
Vibrato & Reverb
Preset Board (Drawer)
Auto Rhythm
2-Speed Split Tremolo
2 - R-60B External Speakers
Reinforced Fiberglass Steel Construction
Source:- The Organ Blue Book

EX 42
Electone museum page
The Yamaha Electone EX-42 was the first of Yamaha's commercially available stage model instruments.
It included two R-60B external speakers and it featured a reinforced fibreglass steel construction.
This instrument was the first Electone to use Integrated Circuits (ICs).

Extract from the Yamaha Museum web site
Yamaha YC-45D 1971
Yamaha YC-45D Organ
Yamaha Electone YC-45D
Yamaha Electone YC-45D
Electone museum page
A portable Electone meant for stage use as a combo organ.
Extract from the Yamaha Museum web site
Yamaha GX-1 1975
shooting stars
Nationalsång Benny Andersson (audio)
20 minutes
YouTube Channel link
Yamaha Electone GX-1
Yamaha Electone GX-1
Electone museum page
Conceived for theaters and similar use, the Yamaha Electone GX-1 set the electronic keyboard industry on it's ear. The first polyphonic synthesizer instrument of it's kind, it bridged the gap between organ and synthesizer. The velocity sensitive keyboards allowed true expression of the voices, a concept never before imagined in electronic organs. The smaller solo keyboard was pressure sensitive.
GX-1 voices were "programmed" onto matchbox sized cartridges. Each cartridge had 26 screw-sized dials on them to change the VCO, VCF, VCA and envelope of the voice. 70 cartridges in total were loaded into racks that emerged from the top of the console.
The GX-1 model Electone was first released under GX-707. Rumour has it that when Yamaha realized that the instrument shared the designation of the Boeing 707 aircraft they change the model number to GX-1.

Extract from the Yamaha Museum web site
Yamaha E-70 1977
Walk Through
Denny Hinman demonstration record
Yamaha Electone E70
Yamaha Electone E70
Electone museum page
One of the first home based organs to feature Yamaha's PASS (Pulse Analog Synthesis System) in a console cabinet

Extract Wikipedia
Yamaha FC/FE/FS/FX series 1983 - 1986
Japan Organ Players
Part 1 Part 2
Len Rawle Part 1
Len Rawle Part 2
Axel F Yamaha FX1 - Douglas Bielanski
You Tube link icon You Tube link icon
Yamaha Electone FX1
Yamaha Electone FX1
This range of Yamaha Electones featured FM (Frequency Modulation) tone generators and the FX series featured the Yamaha's first digitally sampled sounds for the onboard percussion/rhythm units. The F series Electones were the first to allow users to digitally save registrations via pistons and then save them to RAM packs or an external disk drive unit

Extract Wikipedia
Yamaha HS/HX series 1987

Yamaha HS-8

Tea For Two Max Takano
Under The Sea + ?
One Moment in Time ?
I Will Follow Him ?
Yamaha HS8
Electone museum page

Yamaha HX-1

Buddy Holly Tony Stace
Phantom selection Tony Stace
Tico Tico Max Takano
Take Five Max Takano

You Tube link iconReturn To Glen Brae
John Walker
You Tube link iconVila Vella
John Walker
You Tube link iconEvening Calm & Time Revisited
John Walker
You Tube link iconEleanor Waltz
John Walker
You Tube link iconHighland Thyme
John Walker
Yamaha HX1
Yamaha HX1
Electone museum page
Yamaha Electones became more digital at this time. Yamaha used more integrated circuit technology to make components smaller, and hence allowed for a sleeker design.
The The Yamaha HX & HS series was the first to use AWM (Advance Wave Memory) "sampling" technology for both voices and rhythms, and also featured 16-operator FM voices. AWM Voice expansion is also possible via sound packs
The Yamaha HX was distributed in the form of many "mix and match" components, forming the HX-1, HX-3 and HX-5 models depending on which tone generator you used. The unit also featured a choice of three pedalboard units as well as spinet and console keyboards.

Extract various
EL 90 1991
Love Confession
A Whiter Shade of Pale Peter Hayward

Teddy Bears Picnic
Bryan Rodwell
Yamaha EL90
Yamaha EL90
Electone museum page
The Yamaha EL90 included an attached Music Disk Recorder which enabled players to record their registrations and performances, thus eliminating the need for extensive programming before each performance.
The Yamaha EL series introduced new synthesizers, filtering, and expression technologies that made instrument voices on the Electone even more realistic. Voice technology continued to be based on AWM and FM technologies.
This range included EL 15, 25, 30, 40, 50, 60, 7, 70, 90 & 90I(white)

Extract Wikipedia
ELX-1 1992
Bach: Fugue in G Major Gigue - Max Takano
Pomp & Circumstance Max Takano
Ghostbusters Max Takano
Merry Christmas, Mr. Lawrence Max Takano
Bad Romance Doug Bielanski
Brazil Doug Bielanski
You'll Never Walk Alone Doug Bielanski
You Tube link iconBlue Danube
Max Takano
You Tube link iconAladdin Suite
Max Takano
You Tube link icon1941 March
Glyn Madden
You Tube link iconAt The Dance
Glyn Madden
Yamaha ELX-1
Yamaha ELX-1
Electone museum page
Designed to be the ultimate Yamah Electone instrument for it's time, this model is available in white with sycamore wood inlayed console, or black with dark walnut inlay console.
The luxurious hardwood console panels were manufactured at the same plant that Lexus automotive hardwood panels were made.
This model was the first Electone to have assignable keyboard percussion, pannable rhythm instruments and per voice effects sections. It also was the first to have two separate solo voice sections.
AR series 1996
Demonstration video
Theatreland Peter Hayward
Demo by Chris Magrath
Yamaha AR100
Yamaha AR100
Electone museum page
Designed for the American and U.K. markets, the AR-100 seemed to have evolved more from the PSR series of instruments rather than EL series Electones. The rhythms and voicings correspond to the PSR series. Voices are all AWM, no FM.
One of the most outstanding feature of this instrument is the 384 built-in registration menus accessed from the large 320x240 dot LCD panel.
The AR also has an innovative drawbar section using sampled voices instead of generated ones. This allows the user to select from jazz (Hammond B-3), classical (pipe) and theater drawbar voicings.

Extract from the Yamaha Museum web site
EL900 1998
Don Black Tribute Janet Dowsett
Eleanora Janet Dowsett
Wherever You Are Janet Dowsett
Star Wars Medley Max Takano
jazz Max Takano
Gypsy- Lord of the Dance- Nessun Dorma Ryan Edwards
Zampa Ryan Edwards
Superman Kim Vaz
Rolling In The Deep Kim Vaz
Just The Way You Are Kim Vaz
Yamaha EL900
Yamaha EL900
Electone museum page
The first of the 100 series EL's, the EL-900 was the first to use Virtual Acoustic (VA) voices. It also added refinements and extensions to the feature set of the ELX-1
The Yamaha EL 900 was visually similar to the EL90 model from 1991, but with more voices, rhythms and effects.
The EL900 was not available in the UK.
The EL 900i was in white, This model was imported into the UK by Tony Back and caused quite a stir with owners of EL90s who didn't like the AR range.
In 2000 an upgrade was produced and the instrument was renamed the EL900M, the upgrade could be retrofitted to existing EL900 models.
The EL900 was the last Yamaha organ imported into the UK.

Extract various
Yamaha EL-100
How Deep Is Your Love Darryl Waffy Paloay
And I Love Her Darryl Waffy Paloay
Devil's Dance Yofve Chandra
Moon River
Yamaha EL-100
Yamaha EL-100

Electone museum page
Replacing the Yamaha EL-17, the new entry level Yamaha EL-100instrument was an incredible buy.
It was the first entry-level Electone model to have a built-in MDR. This signified Yamaha's efforts to make superior Electone features available at a more attractive price point.

Extract from the Yamaha Museum web site
ELS-01X Stagea 2004
Demonstration medley ELS 01X 1
Demonstration ELS-01C
Total Eclipse of the heart ELS-01C
yamaha Stagea ELS-01X
Yamaha Stagea ELS-01X
Electone museum page
In 2004, Yamaha launched the Stagea series. This series uses all AWM (Advanced Wave Memory) voices and features over 180 digital effects, built-in registration menus, VA (Virtual Acoustic) voices, and a Style-File compatible expanded rhythm and accompaniment section. AWM is the proprietary sound sampling technology of Yamaha.
ELS-01: The standard model
ELS-01C: The custom model, carrying the ability to utilise the VA voices, Pitch and Tempo Bends, After touch on the pedal keyboard, horizontal touch and after pitch, along with other features, and lastly,
ELS-01X: The professional model - taking the ELS-01C, it adds 61-note keyboards, a 25-note pedal board and XLR external audio jacks.
The Stagea ELS-01 series was officially distributed only in Asian countries.

Extract Wikipedia
ELB-01 2006
Butterfly Lovers Cindy Wan
Let it Be Cindy Wan
Demonstration Movie Nakagawa Mina
Yamaha Stagea ELB-01
In 2006, Yamaha added the ELB-01 model to the lineup. This is a students' model, with 245 AWM voices and 133 accompaniment rhythms, but without voice or rhythm editing capabilities
Extract Wikipedia
D-Deck 2008
Demonstration Movie
James Bond theme
Magnificent 7 Marco Cerbella
Ghostbusters Marco Cerbella
Hymn To The Fallen Marco Cerbella
Orange Sunshine Marco Cerbella
Yamaha Stagea D-Deck
Yamaha Stagea D-Deck
In 2008, Yamaha added The D-Deck (DDK-7 in some markets), which is the portable version of the ELS-01 with a more compact body, 61 keys on the lower keyboard and an optional pedalboard. The D-Deck comes with all the features of the ELS-01, with the additions also of Organ Flute voices and a second expression pedal.

Extract Wikipedia
Type U 2009
Yamaha Stagea Type U
In 2009, the Stagea type U series was launched, with only hardware differences between them and their original counterparts. The type U version omitted the floppy drive UD-FD01 and the Smart-Media card slot.

Extract Wikipedia
Stagea ELS-02 2014
Circle of Life (Lion King) - Max Takano
Radetzky March Max Takano
Tico Tico Max Takano
Star Wars Medley Max Takano
Yamaha Stagea ELS-02
Yamaha Stagea ELS-02
In April 2014, Yamaha launched the STAGEA ELS-02 series. This series features Super Articulation voices, on top of over 900 AWM sounds, 96 VA voices, pedalboard polyphony, effects, and 566 accompaniment rhythms. The ELS-01, ELS-01C and ELS-01X can also be upgraded to the current series by the use of a "Vitalize" unit.
The Yamaha Stagea ELS-02 series currently has three models:
  • Yamaha ELS-02: The standard model, with 506 AWM voices including Super Articulation voices, 506 accompaniment rhythms, and hundreds of audio effects.
  • Yamaha ELS-02C: The custom model. Other than all the features of the ELS-02, it has an additional 60 AWM voices, VA voices, Organ Flutes voices (with digital drawbars), a second expression pedal, horizontal keyboard touch, and pedal board aftertouch.
  • Yamaha ELS-02X: The professional model, which contains all the features of the ELS-02C but with both keyboards expanded to 61 keys and the pedalboard expanded to 25 full pedals.

Unlike the first Yamaha Stagea series, the Yamaha Stagea ELS-02 series is distributed in both Asia and Mexico.

Extract Wikipedia
Yamaha Stagea ELB-02
Harry Potter Theme Michael Sun
For the first time in forever Michael Sun
Yamaha Stagea ELB-02
Yamaha Stagea ELB-02
In May 2016, the Yamaha ELB-02 model was launched as a revamp of the ELB-01 model with more voices and rhythms added as well as the "after touch" feature on the upper and lower keyboards.
Zachary organs was part of the Artisan Electronics Corporation.
Enchanter 1978
Organ overview Tour of the organ, buttons etc. No music
Zachery Enchanter organ
Zachery Enchanter
The Enchanter 800 series was launched in 1978. It had a single 49 note keyboard with ten voices (4 flutes), it had single fingered chords and a pedal to change to minor chord and featured ten rhythm patterns.
In 1981 the 900 was launched, it had the same spec as the 800 with the addition of tremolo, some special effects and 5 balance controls.

The Organ Blue Book