Directory of Electronic Organs
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Allen Organs
Allen Organ Company - Behind the Scenes
Allen Organs Being Built
1962 Custom Allen Organ
Test Run of new Allen Organ
Allen Theater III Organ
Strand Theatre "Mighty Allen" - Ken Stroud
Clark Wilson demonstrates the Allen Theatre Organ
Diane Bish Signature Series Allen Organs
Q475 four-manual, 89-stop organ - Christopher Houlihan
Allen organ consul Link to Allen Organ page on WIkipedia
Web Site logo
Baldwin Organs
Dwight Hamilton Baldwin Dwight Hamilton Baldwin (1821 - 1899)(pic. left) was born in Erie County, Pennsylvania. D H Baldwin was a music teacher, he opened a music store in Cincinnati, Ohio in 1857. In 1862, he founded Decker Brothers Piano dealership and hired Lucien Wulsin, who became a partner in 1873 and the company name was changed to D. H. Baldwin & Company. Dwight Baldwin then merged the Hamilton Organ Company, a manufacturer of reed organs, and the conglomerate became the Baldwin Piano Company.
In 1935 the Baldwin company began experimentation in the electronic generation of musical tone In 1946, Baldwin released to market its first electronic organ, the Model 5. This was a comprehensive 2-manual and 32-note pedalboard instrument and was mechanically similar to a medium-sized pipe organ. This model was found in many churches and is still a fairly common model to be found, along with its later version, the 5-A. The Model 10 in 1950, a larger console with the same two-61-note manuals and 32 pedals, followed this. The Model 11 followed and included such features as chiff, celeste stops and percussions. These organs were so successful that the company name was changed to Baldwin Piano & Organ Company.
In 1953, the Model 45 was introduced for the home market. This organ had two 61-note manuals and 25 pedals and had 23 stops with three control levers. This led, in 1958, to the Model 45-HP, which included sustain percussion. In the meantime, spinet organs were developed and were commercialized as Baldwin Orga-Sonic. Some spinet and console organs with some changes in furniture design and features appeared under the name Howard. There were also sporadic attempts with optical-disc technology for tone generation.
1955 saw a revival in the classic theatre organs of the 1920s, and electronic organs started to emulate them in the early 1960s and Baldwin was no exception. Baldwin theatre organs were found as both spinets and consoles. The HT-2 was a full-size beast including the 32-note pedalboard, followed later by the HT-2R, which included a Rhythm Drawer featuring percussive drum sounds played on the pedals or Accompaniment manual. A unique feature of these organs was a set of pistons to produce the sounds of a siren or auto horn, just like the old theatre organs.
Baldwin organs were designed using the master oscillator system. This kept production costs and prices down but there was no way to break the "electronic syndrome" of the tone. In answer to this, Baldwin developed Panoramic Tone consisting of a slow-speed rotor in front of a speaker with built-in spring-type reverberation. They also developed a series of gradual-contact key contacts to eliminate key-clicks and imitate the pipe organ's slower attack and decay characteristics. Organists had mixed feelings about this slower attack and decay property.
In 1988 th Baldwin company purchased the keyboard division of the Wurlitzer Company and the combined operation became known as Church Organ System, Inc. In 1993, this operation ceased production.
Extract from Baldwin Organs History
Studio II
John Dickinson plays
LP link icon LP link icon LP link icon LP link icon LP link icon
Baldwin Studio II organ
George Bancroft organ builder
George Bancroft was born in 1907 in Haworth. An Electronics Wizard he set up business renting radio sets, eventually setting up his own factory making them.
He experimented with early television but gave that up to make organs.
He had first become interested in organs shortly before the war when he was intrigued by the pipe organ in his local chapel, he went on to read books on organ building before making small electronic attachments to a harmonium and then experimenting with tone generators and filters. Here his skill in radio electronics became vital.
He always said that he would donate an organ to the first local church to place an order with him, the first instrument took two years to build, and was donated to the Bridgehouse Methodist Chapel in Haworth.

(George, 2nd left, with Frieda Hall at the organ at Bridgehouse Church)
Miss Freda Hall, played the organ several times and considered it to be the best in the world. She described it as the Rolls Royce of organs.

As his skill and knowledge developed he started to produce organs where each note had it's own generator, which was an expensive refinement at the time.
This effect brought his organs into line with a pipe organ, where there is a pipe in every stop on every note. At that time pipe organs were ten times the cost of George's organs. His organs also had other features, normally found on much more expensive organs such as the ability to produce tones similar in sound to an oboe, french horn or trumpet, and coupler controls which made a note sound one or two octaves higher or lower, thus producing an orchestral effect in both tone and volume.
George built his last electronic organ when he was 82 years old, which was a two manual instrument with bass pedals.
George Bancroft died in 1996
Extract:- George Bancroft, An Electronics Wizard
Bemore logo
Richard van Kooij Richard van Kooij started the Bemore Instrument brand because he saw his favourite instrument losing the battle on the instrumental market. He believes that digital organs have become too complicated for most owners to use. Because of this and his love for this wonderful instrument, Richard and his team developed a brand new instrument which is very easy to use.
Genesis Home 2017
Theme from Cinema Paradiso
Theatre organ sounds
Morning in Cornwall
Bemore Genesis Home organ
The Genesis Home comes as standard with 2×100 digital amplification system (Class D) and a 17 note pedalboard. This however, can be tailored to customer requirements, i.e., 25 note pedalboard, and extra amplification by way of two floor standing speakers.
  • One page Graphical User Interface
  • The electronics are custom designed and built
  • Pedalboard is completely handcrafted
Genesis Pro
The Genesis Pro is available with or without amplification.  The amplification for the pro consists of two high quality floor standing speakers. Once again there is a choice on pedalboard with 17 or 25 notes.
Bohm Excellence 300
I'm still standing DirkJan Ranzijn
Emporio 600

Dr. SchiwagoJames Last version
Claus Riepe
/ Lara's theme
BÖHM Emporio 600
Sempra SE20
Greensleeves Claus Riepe
Bohm Sempra SE20
Sempra SE40
Without You Steffen Reiser
Bohm Sempra SE40
Hans Nordelius In 1983, Hans Nordelius (left) and Mikael Carlsson began to work in the basement of a home located in the southern suburbs of Stockholm, creating the world's first dedicated digital drum for the commercial market, called the 'Digital Percussion Plate 1'. In 1984 an improved version that could play four sounds from an EPROM was released under the 'ddrum' name with the now signature red colouring.
In 1995, Clavia released the Nord Lead. Iit popularized the virtual analogue type of synthesis. In 1997 the Nord Lead 2 was released, with many improvements, including increasing polyphony from 4 to 16 notes. The Nord Lead 3 was released in 2001, with a reworked sound engine, better D/A converters and monophonic after-touch.
In 1997 Clavia released the Nord Modular, a virtual analogue modular synthesizer. It allowed you to essentially build your own virtual analogue synthesizer. It too was later upgraded with the 2004 release of the Nord Modular G2, that gave it the same endless rotary knobs as the Nord Lead 3 and a larger keyboard with after-touch.
In 2001 the Nord Electro was released. It was designed to emulate the classical electromechanical keyboards like Hammond organ, electric piano and Hohner Clavinet. The pianos are samples but the organs are modelled using a "digital simulation". Clavia's current models here are the Electro 5, emulating a Hammond B3, a Farfisa and a Vox organ and containing samples of different electric pianos, the Nord C2 Organ, a dual manual instrument containing the organ section from the Nord Electro 3 as well as an emulation of a baroque pipe organ; and the Nord Stage 2which takes the organ and pianos from the Nord Electro and adds a virtual analogue synthesizer.
Extract:- Clavia History on Wikipedia
Nord C1 2007 - 2009
A Whiter shade of pale
Sadden Bridge
Nord C1 organ
The original C1 contains two 61-key manuals, laid out in a similar style to a Hammond Console Organ such as the B3 or A100.
An optional 27-note MIDI pedal keyboard is also available to purchase separately from Clavia.
A set of drawbuttons, similar to those found on the Nord Electro and Nord Stage control the drawbar levels of the Hammond and Vox emulations, or the voice tabs of the Farfisa emulation. Only one type of organ can be selected at once, though each manual has individual controls for the type of organ selected. There is an internal emulation of the Leslie speaker, or a real Leslie can be attached to an 11-pin amphenol connector.
Extract Nord C Series Wikipedia page
Nord C2 2009 ->
C Jam Blues
church organ
Nord C2D Organ Full Demo
Nord C2D organ
The C2's pipe organ emulation, unlike the electric organs, is generated using samples instead of physical modelling. It includes 21 stops, and provides an emulation of the swell pedal (which behaves differently from a Hammond organ) and tremulant. The sound engine was improved, providing additional click levels and emulations of other models of Leslie Speaker.
In 2012 Clavia released the Nord C2D. It has the same form factor as the C2 model, but adds two sets of nine physical drawbars per manual and a set of two for the pedal board. This follows the Hammond B3 standard. Pre-set selection buttons has been added to the cheek blocks. The sound engine was also enhanced, including an improved key click and percussion model.
Extract Nord C Series Wikipedia page
3 M/E
Compton model 3M/E
Compton 3ME Addvertisement
The Stage
Thursday 24 June 1965
Image © The Stage Media Company Limited
Upper keyboard devoted to percussion instruments (Piano, harpsichord, guitar etc.). Built in reverb & sustain.
1965 retail 975gns (£1023 & 15 shillings (£1023.75))
C. G. ConnThe Conn musical instrument company was started by Charles Gerard Conn (1844 - 1931) (pic left) in 1875 producing a rubber mouth piece for trumpets. Conn had a distinguished military career, he was colonel of the 1st Regiment of Artillery in the Indiana Legion.
Following a number of law suits Conn sold up.
In 1915 all of Colonel Conn's holdings were bought by a group of investors led by Carl Dimond Greenleaf. The Conn Company was a leader in making band instruments.
The demand for band instruments was declining, in 1946, to maintain the company's position as a leader in musical instrument manufacture, they developed the 'Connsonata' electric organ.
By 1969, C. G. Conn, Ltd. was facing bankruptcy.
In 1970, the corporate offices were moved to Oak Brook, Illinois and during the following year the Conn Organ Division was moved to Carol Stream, Illinois.
In 1980 the company was sold to Daniel Henkin, who had served the company as an advertising manager. In that year Henkin sold the organ division to Kimball under the name of Conn Keyboards.
Extract:- C. G. Conn Wikipedia page
Conn 552
Conn 552
Somewhere Over the Rainbow
Conn 552 organ
Conn Organ 552 Theatrette This was one of their best and most popular organs ever made. The Theatre design is complemented by the horseshoe console and soft lighting plus matching theatre styled bench.
Conn 580

St Peter's Anglican Church - Eric Barlow
St Peter's Anglican Church - Charles Brown
Poinciana medley
A Foggy Day in London Town
Conn 580 organ
Conn 644 Martinique
Medley Demonstration Conn 644 Martinique
Conn 652
RAF March-Stein Song
Medley - Richard Mosher
Medley - Adrian Rose
Medley - Eric Lord
Conn 653
Classical Organ Sounds with Chimes
653 Theatre Deluxe

LP link icon
Conn 653 organ
More information to be added soon
The Era
Wednesday 12 August 1936
Image © Successor rights holder unknown.
More information to be added soon
Eminent advert In 1923, the bakery clerk Jacob Vreeken (1899-1976) decided to start selling organs. Vreeken was already familiar with the instrument-he played the organ in the local church on Sundays.
To finance his enterprise, Vreeken gave organ lessons for 0,75 cents an hour and repaired old harmonium's.
"If they can't find me, they can't buy from me!", thus Vreeken. Out of every penny of profit, he spent half on advertising. (pic right)
These costs were so out of proportion, that he had to convince the tax office that he had indeed spent all this money on advertising.
In 1928, Vreeken left the premises where his shop was established, and moved to the centre of the small town of Bodegraven. Here, he started to import organs from Germany.
Using a bank loan, he bought as many used pianos and harmonium's as he could afford and made his way back into the organ business. Due to a tremendous amount of publicity, his instrument sales boomed.
In 1950, Vreeken started importing the electronic Multimonica organ from Germany. This was the beginning of his venture in electronic engineering.
Nine years later, he decided on the development of his first electronic organ with one manual, quite different from the organs that he had been importing from America and Germany.
In 1961, the first model was introduced, the Eminent 60. Sales picked up and in 1965, the production of the Solina organs started. Exporting organs became a substantial part of his business.
In 1969, the organ business relocated to Waddinxveen, where it acquired two factory buildings in order to obtain the required space for the expanded production.
One year later, Jacob Vreeken, by then 70 years old, resigned as managing director.
In 1990, Eminent commenced development of a new digital system. This system could be voiced in its smallest details, whereby the organs could be customized to fit every space in which they were installed.
This design still forms the basis of the newest generation of instruments today.
In 1994, Eminent Organs moved to a new building in Lelystad. Apart from the enhanced production facilities, the building also contains a 100 seat auditorium specially designed for the demonstration of organs, and for concerts.
Now, following developments in electronics and software, the Eminent organ continues to be able to fully meet the highest demands of its customers.
Extract:- Eminent web site
Eminent Cantate 20
Recital - Martin Riessen
Widor toccata
Eminent Cantate 20 organ
Eminent 310
Equinoxe IV
Some Jean Michel Jarre
Eminent 310 organ
Used by Jean-Michel Jarre on 'Oxygene' and many other albums.
Eminent 370LX
Trumpet Voluntary Eminent 370LX organ
No recordings available at the moment Estey Freedom II electric organ
Estey started producing electric organs in 1961. They had been building harmonium's since 1852
New York financier Arnold Bernard knew nothing of the music business when he took over the failing Estey Organ Company. Injecting cash into didn't help, so his next attempt to rescue it was to buy another company (this time a successful one), and let the other company sort out Estey into something profitable. That company was Magna. Bernard made Magna's president, F. Roy Chilton, the new Estey president.
Prior to Magna's involvement with Estey, Harald Bode had developed an electric tube-based organ. By 1959, it was too expensive to build and perhaps too heavy to compete in the market, so new electric organs were designed from scratch.
The early electric organs designed and built in Torrance. They used neon bulbs as oscillators. A sawtooth wave originated a signal for each note, and lower octaves were produced with frequency divider circuits. For the vibrato, reverb, and power sections, the organs would have looked a lot like the guitar amps at the time.
The 900 series electric organs were called the President Series. The list prices were in the $1,400 to $1,500 range, and the dealer cost was half of that. Exterior finish wood was the primary distinction between the different models. The 931 had five speakers (3 tweeters and 2 larger speakers), volume "expression" pedals, sustain draw-bars, two separate vibratos, and Hammond tank reverberation.
By 1966, orders for the 900 series organs were non-existent.
The 800 series organs was Estey's premium line of home organs. Early versions were tube driven, and later versions were advertised as fully transistorized.
The 801/802/805 was called The New Yorker. It had two 37-key overhanging keyboards, a 13 note foot pedal clavier, an expression pedal (volume), vibrato, and seven voices. The 851/852 was called The Philadelphian.
At minimum, this organ was produced from 1961 to 1966.
The Twin-City model was the 807.
The 500 and 700 series were transistorized electric home organs, usually with a single speaker The retailed in the $240 to $300. They all were 37-key, and various numbers of chords (40-72). Some had integrated rhythm/percussion devices. The 700P was a portable organ that came with a BP-1 battery pack.
The 721/722 were called the Americanna, and the 741/742 were called the California.
Extract:- Estey Organs history
1859 -
Everett Piano Company
Wikipedia page
The Everett Piano Company was a piano manufacturing company was a wholly owned subsidiary of the John Church Company.
John Church, Jr. established the company in 1859, and after taking partners into the firm, he incorporated it in 1885.
Other subsidiary companies included Cincinnati's Royal Manufacturing Company, which produced smaller musical instruments such as drums, violins, guitars, mandolins, and banjos.
Besides musical instruments, the John Church Company published large amounts of sheet music.
Orgatron 1935 - 1941
Organ Expressions
More pictures of the organ
Wikipedia page

Orgatron advertisement
Liverpool Daily Post
Thursday 20 July 1939
Image © Trinity Mirror. Image created courtesy of
Orgatron advertisement
Sheffield Independent
Saturday 05 March 1938
Image © Johnston Press plc.
Image created courtesy of
The Orgatron was an electronic organ originally developed in 1934 by , after a patent. A fan blew air over a set of free reeds, causing them to vibrate. These vibrations were detected by a number of capacitive pickups, before being amplified to create musical tones.
After the death of Hoschke in 1936, the Orgatron was manufactured by Everett Piano Company.
In 1946, Rudolph Wurlitzer Company bought the patent, and was manufactured in the period from 1947 to 1961.
Orgatrons were installed in at least three UK cinemas, The Cinema House, Rotherham, The Forum, Sheffield and Parade Cinema, Skegness. A Everett organ (Orgatron ?) was installed in a
Sheffield hotel.
Sheffield Evening Telegraph
Saturday 08 April 1939
Image © Johnston Press plc.
Image created courtesy of
and others were installed in Churches, the first at

Sheffield Daily Telegraph
Monday 03 July 1939
Image © Johnston Press plc.
Image created courtesy of
Farfisa Organs
Professional 88
Compact Duo Farfisa Beresford - Les Bonner
More information to be added soon
600 Magic Touch Organ Demo
Gulbransen N2 organ Demo
Frenesi on Gulbransen organ
Shine On Harvest Moon and Pretty Baby - Gulbransen 600 Series Organ
Gulbransen Theatrum Organ - Brian Sharp
If I Had You - Gulbransen Rialto II
Deep Purple - Gulbransen Rialto II
The Christmas song on Gulbransen Paragon organ
Gulbransen organ

Axel GulbransenAxel Gulbransen (pic left) was born December 20th 1860 Oslo fylke, Norway. He died May 14th 1935
In 1904 he established the Gulbransen Piano Company.
In the 1920s Gulbransen made the first upright piano with a player piano mechanism in the same case, thousands of player pianos were manufactured by the firm under the Gulbransen and Dickinson name, Dickenson was a partner with Gulbransen in their player piano line.
In the electronic organ era, Gulbransen pioneered several innovations in the production of home electronic organs that became industry standards:
  • Use of transistor circuitry
  • Built-in Leslie speaker system
  • Chime stop and Piano stop
  • Automatic rhythm (built-in drum machine)
  • Automatic walking bass (bass accompaniment)
In 1957, Gulbransen released the first transistorized electric organ 'Gulbransen Model B', although its use of transistors was limited to the tone generators, and vacuum tubes were still used for the power amplifier.
Ownership of the Gulbransen name has changed several times since the 1950s. Around 1950, it was sold to CBS, then in 1964, merged with Seeburg Corporation, and production was once ceased in 1969. In 1985, Mission Bay Investments acquired the brand and produced Elka organs under the Gulbransen name. In 2002 or 2003, QRS Music Technologies acquired the brand and pianos were made by Samick.
Extract:- Gulbransen Wikipedia page
Hammond Organs
Building Organs at the Hammond Factory
History of the Hammond Organ
How Do Hammond Organs Work?
Music For Our Church
80th Anniversary
Hammond Drawbars
Hammond Chord organ

Laurens Hammond 11th Jan 1895 – 3rd Jul 1973
Laurens Hammond
Laurens Hammond was born 1895 in Evanston Illinois. His father was a banker, whose job afforded the Hammonds an affluent lifestyle, he died shortly after Laurens was born.
Laurens was intelligent, and loved to tinker. He attended Engineering school at Cornell, served in World War I, and returned to work various jobs. But Laurens Hammond longed to be an "independent inventor", and he got right down to work.
Today we take electric power for granted, but in the 30's, the juice that came out of the wall was often unstable. Hammond invented a motor that ran at the same speed no matter what, and it was completely noiseless. Hammond hit upon the idea applying his motor to run a clock. Because it was silent, there was no "tick-tock", and his clock was an immediate success.
The great depression of the 1930's caused the bottom to fall out of the Hammond Clock Company. Hammond tried other applications, like an automated bridge table using his motor to drive a mechanism dealing cards to each player. The table gave Hammond a slight lift financially, but it, too, soon faded.
Looking for new ideas Hammond's thoughts considered using his motor to generate sound. Although Laurens Hammond wasn't a musician, he loved to hear the organ when he went to church with his mother as a child. Why not try to build an alternative to expensive pipe organs?
There was already an effort underway by other inventors to do exactly that, but no one had succeeded. Around 1900, an inventor named Thadeus Cahill came up with the Teleharmonium. The Teleharmonium was a huge, mechanical system utilizing garbage-can sized (and larger) cylinders to generate sounds. The design called for the music made by this beast to be piped into houses by means of telephone wires. Needless to say, this system failed, but the basic working idea had merit.
Using a much, much smaller design based on the ideas of Cahill's instrument, coupled with the synchronous motor, Hammond came up with what he called an "Electric Flute". It Worked! At first he thought it would be just a toy, a plaything, selling for thirty to forty dollars, but thinking again, he saw that this could be a major advancement in musical instruments, and proceeded to sketch out the blueprints for what would become the Hammond Organ.
On April 24th, 1934 Laurens Hammond filed for a patent on his musical machine. The paper was a whopper, spanning 18 pages and twenty thousand words. At that time the country's top industrialist was automaker Henry Ford, who loved gadgets of all sorts. He got wind of Hammond's patents, and sent men to Chicago to order six organs immediately. The problem was, that Hammond's Organ hadn't even gone into production yet.
Ford summoned Hammond to Dearborn to find out if he could help get the fledgling organ company up to speed. Hammond declined Ford's generous offer of material participation. It is a common misperception that Henry Ford got the first Hammond Organ. Mr Ford placed the first Order, but he didn't get the first organ.
The reality is actually much tamer. After Laurens got the company up and running, Hammond's Serial Number One went to a dealer in Kansas City, where it was used for years as a traveling demonstrator. Upon its retirement, it went to the Smithsonian in Washington, where it now resides.
The Hammond Organ was an immediate success, and before long Churches, Theatres and Concert halls were humming to the Model "A"'s sound.
On the west side of Chicago, near the original Hammond Factory, Black Gospel Churches began to use the Hammond Organ, and a tradition was born that has never stopped growing.
Extract Hammond organ company profile
Donald J. Leslie 13th Apr 1911 - 2nd Sept 2004
Donald J. Leslie
Donald James Leslie was born April 13th 1911 in Danville, Illinois. The Leslie family moved to Glendale in Southern California in 1913. Donald went to Glendale schools, and graduated from Glendale Union High School in 1929. He had a knowledge of mechanics, radio and electronics. Donald had an interest in music, mostly piano and pipe organ.
Donald worked as an engineer for a firm that made parts for the Hammond Organ Company. He became interested in this new instrument, but there was something that wasn't right to his ear. Laurens Hammond intended his organ to play in churches and classical concert halls. Donald, who loved the Mighty Wurlitzer Theatre Organ wished that the Hammond Organ could sound a little softer. After some experimentation, Don Leslie hit on an idea that would put "motion" into the sound of Hammond Organ. The Leslie speaker was born.
Leslie thought he had hit on great idea. He took his invention to Laurens Hammond butLaurens Hammond hated the idea. He meant for his organ to play church and classical music. Don Leslie knew he was on to something, so he went into business for himself, producing the musical innovation that was called Vibratone-The Pipe Voice Of The Electric Organ'.
Theatre Organists Jesse Crawford was among the first to popularize the sound of the Hammond and Vibratone combination. In 1958 Donald Leslie again tried to sell his company to Hammond, but Laurens Hammond was stubborn, and rejected it again. Leslie then licensed his invention to many other organ manufacturers. The company was so successful, that Electro-Music never had to advertise the Leslie Speaker. Donald Leslie eventually sold the Electro-Music company.
Other patents awarded to Leslie included radio control of model trains, control and chlorination systems for swimming pools.
Donald Leslie died peacefully 3rd September 2004, at his home in Altadena, California
Hammond Model A June 1935 - Oct 1938
Web page on Model A. Music and pictures Hammond Model A
In 1934 a patent Granted for the tone-wheel organ. The Organ was officially unveiled to the public at the first (and only) Industrial Arts Exposition in Radio City’s RCA building on April 15th, 1935.
The first Hammond organ was the Model A. It contained most of the features that came to be standard on all console Hammonds, including two 61-key manuals, a 25-key pedalboard, an expression pedal, 12 reverse-color preset keys, two sets of drawbars for each manual, and one for the pedals.
From serial number 2501 onwards a deeper cabinet was used (that would last with few changes to the B-3)the model was designated AB.
Hammond Model BC Dec 1936
Hammond BC Hammond Model BC
To address concerns that the sound of the Hammond was not rich enough to accurately mimic a pipe organ, the model BC was introduced in December 1936. It included a chorus generator, in which a second tonewheel system added slightly sharp or flat tones to the overall sound of each note. The cabinet was made deeper to accommodate this
In 1937 the FTC (Federal Trade Commission) complained that the Hammond instrument was not an organ and that it could not produce an ‘infinite' number of tone variations.
A year later after extensive hearings and an impartial panel test at the University of Chicago Chapel, the FTC ruled that Hammond had the right to call its instrument an organ. But it must stop claiming ‘an infinite number of tones’; it could only claim 253,000,000 possible combinations.
Hammond Concert Model E July 37-July 42
My Sunshine
Model E. After Renovation
G Minor Blues
Hammond Model E
1937 also saw the introduction of the Hammond Concert Model E. The first Hammond Organ with a 32 note A.G.O. pedalboard (concave & radiating).
This model also featured two expression pedals, two separate tremulants for Swell and Great manuals and preset pistons in place of Preset Keys.
Hammond models C & D 1939
Hammond models C
The C was the same as the AB but in a "Church" cabinet which was enclosed and featured church styling. The D was the "Church" Cabinet version of the BC.
Hammond Spinet Organ 1941
Demonstration, Tube Amplifiers, Reverb Chamber, and Hammond Tone Wheels.
Hammond Spinet organs from the late 40s to the early 80s
Show Me The Way To Go
Hammond Spinet organ
Though the instrument had been originally designed for use in a church, Hammond realized that the amateur home market was a far more lucrative business, and started manufacturing spinet organs in the late 1940s.
The Hammond Spinet Organ contained two 44-note manuals with one set of drawbars each, and a 12-note pedalboard. The M model was produced from 1948 to 1951, the M-2 from 1951 to 1955, and the M-3 from 1955 to 1964.[12] The M series was replaced by the M-100 series in 1961.
Sales of the Spinet organ exceeded all previous sales of all models combined in six short years.
Leslie speaker c. 1942
History of the Leslie speakers
Speaker demonstration
Leslie speaker
Leslie control switch A Leslie speaker consists of a number of individual components. The audio signal enters the amplifier from the instrument. Once amplified, the signal travels to an audio crossover, which splits it into separate frequency bands that can be individually routed to each loudspeaker. Different models have different combinations of speakers, but the most common model, the 122, consists of a single woofer for bass and a single compression driver and acoustic horn for treble. The audio emitted by the speakers is isolated inside an enclosure, aside from a number of outlets that lead towards either a rotating horn or drum. An electric motors rotate both horn and drum at a constant speed depending on the manual switch setting, 'chorale'=slow and 'tremelo'=fast
The only control common to all Leslie speakers is a dial that controls the master volume. This is normally set up once and then left, since the organ's expression pedal normally controls the volume. Leslie recommended playing the organ at full volume with all stops (drawbars) pulled out and adjusting the volume to just before distortion occurs. However, the distorted sound of an overdriven vacuum tube amplifier can be a desirable sound, to the extent that modern Leslie simulators have an explicit "overdrive" setting.
Control of a Leslie speaker is normally catered for by an external two way switch (left) mounted on the front of the organ so the player can easily switch settings. The switch can be used while notes are being played, and the sound of changing between the two settings is part of the characteristic sound. On both settings, the treble horn rotates slightly faster than the bass woofer; about 50 revolutions per minute (rpm) for "chorale" and 400 rpm for "tremolo", compared to the woofer's 40 rpm and 340 rpm respectively.
Extract from the Leslie speaker Wikipedia page
Hammond B3 1955
Hammond B3 organ
Introduction of the Hammond B3, the same as the model B2 but with Hammond Percussion
Percussion introduced on B3, C3, RT3.
The Hammond Organ Percussion Controls enabled the organist to produce a wide variety of tones similar to the orchestra bells, chimes, marimba, xylophone, and harp.
The Percussion Controls were not intended to be exact substitutes for the percussion stops found on some pipe organs.
An important feature of the Hammond Organ Percussion Controls was that the percussion tones may be produced with a key-controlled 'touch-response' in which desired notes of a melody may be accentuated with the percussion tone while others are not so accentuated.
Hammond X66 May 1967 - 1975
As Time Goes By - Peter Hayward
Brazil - Peter Hayward
Whispering & Bye Bye Blues - Peter Hayward
Sentimental Journey + - Peter Hayward
LP link icon LP link icon LP link icon LP link icon
Hammond X66
The Hammond X66 Organ was the most luxurious, expensive and innovative model that Hammond had produced.
The main differences from the other models are its pedestal cabinet, sound and attributes. But due to its hi original price very few people could afford to buy one.
Technical Differences
* The general organ sound is more brilliant.
* The percussion sustain is very short.
* The keys in the keyboards are much softer.
* The response of the expression pedal is slower
Extract Hammond X66 Fan Web Site
SX 2500 played by Carol Williams :- slide show of Hammond organs Hammond SX-2500
The concept of the SX and CX series was innovative, the ability to upgrade your Hammond to latest specifications via software (although this was on EPROM) Thus a 10 year old SX2000 could, for a modest fee be upgraded to a SX2500 or an SX3000. The upgrade did not affect Reverb or cabinet design.
Extract:- Hammond Organ Museum Web site
The Haven Organs

The Alan Haven Organ
Jam Session
Haven organ
These organs were designed by the Jazz master Alan Haven and built by Crumar in the 1970s.
The organs were marketed for about 10 years.
Johannus Organs
Elizabethan Serenade Ecclesia D47
Introduction to Johannus Organs (UK)
Philippine Arena
Marche Triumphale
Fuga gigue BWV 577 - Johannus Opus 250
Experience LiVE
Johannus organ Web Site logo - link to Johannus web site
Youtube logo- graphic link to the Johannus You tube channel
Kawai T50
The instrument is all analogue, with every note individually generated.
Manual IV (4th one up in the centre 'bank') is the home of the most glorious sounding string and vocal ensembles.
Over at the left is a bank of classical pipe voicings and the 4 manuals at the right are all duophonic orchestral synths.
Manuals 9 and 10 are portamento (for violin and whistle etc, with touch vibrato) and an arpeggio manual - triggered from the chords on Manual I.
Personal recollection AndyG
Caravan organ
Swinger 700
Kimball Electramatic Player Organ - Begin the Beguine
Kimball electric organ
William Wallace Kimball The company was founded by William Wallace Kimball (left) in 1857 as an organ and piano retailer in Chicago. Kimball also sold less expensive reed organs. In 1890, Kimball hired Englishman Frederic W. Hedgeland to supervise the building of a portable pipe organ, about the size of a large upright piano. The pipe organ division of Kimball also built large, permanent pipe organs.
In 1959, the W.W. Kimball Company was purchased from the last remaining Kimball family heir by Mr. Arnold F. Habig, becoming a wholly-owned subsidiary of The Jasper Corporation.
In 1961, in conjunction with the relocation of Kimball piano production from Illinois to Indiana, the company formed Jasper Electronics Manufacturing Company to develop and produce Kimball organs for the home entertainment market.
At its peak during the 1960s and 1970s, the company was manufacturing approximately 150 electronic organs per day. Remaining true to the piano company's original sales slogan, 'Music For The Millions.'
Electronic organ production was phased out during the 1980s
Extract:- Wikipedia and Kimball web site
More information to be added soon
More information to be added soon
Orla GT 8000
Demonstration Orla GT 8000
Ringway RS600
Organ Preset Bank
Blackpool Memories
Peanut Vendor - Peter Hayward
The Syncopated Clock - Peter Hayward
Ringway RS600
Roland AT-900 Organ - Ryoki Yamaguchi
Ikutaro KakehashiIkutaro Kakehashi (left) was born in 1930 and was just two years old when both his parents died from tuberculosis. He spent most of his childhood living in Osaka, Japan.
Following World War II, Kakehashi failed to get into university on health grounds and so he moved to the Japanese island of Kyushu.
Kakehashi contracted tuberculosis in both lungs and was admitted to hospital, where his ill health stranded him for a number of years. Such was his health that Kakehashi was in hospital for 3 years and despite keeping himself busy with small personal inventions, his condition was becoming worse. Due to these circumstances, Kakehashi was selected as a guinea-pig to test a new drug, Streptomycin. This proved a stroke of luck, as within a year, his health had improved so much that he was able to leave the hospital
In 1954 and struggling to find a job, Kakehashi opened his own electrical goods and repair shop, which quickly became very successful. However, in 1955 he decided that he also wanted to begin developing electronic musical instruments that could produce simple monophonic melodies.
Kakehashi originally attempted built his own Theremin, but soon found that it was extremely difficult to master. Kakehashi now became interested in creating an instrument with playable notes, so he set his inventive mind to it and created a four-octave organ using bits of telephones and transistor oscillators amongst other things! However, this original prototype did not sound quite as he had envisaged and so it was never mass produced.
Despite dabbling in other areas such as guitar amplification, Kakehashi ploughed on with his interest in organs and in 1960 he designed an organ that became the Technics SX-601, having been recommended to the owner of Technics via a friend of a friend. Ace Electronic Industries was now up and running.
In 1964, Kakehashi built the Ace Electronics R1 Rhythm Ace and decided to take it along to the NAMM show in Chicago. Unfortunately for Kakehashi, despite receiving interest, he did not receive any distribution deals. Kakehashi improved the R1 by adding pre-programmed patterns with the addition of a diode matrix that determined the position of each instrument in the pattern. This upgrade was released with the FR-1 Rhythm Ace, which was introduced in 1967 and the technology was snapped up by the Hammond Organ Company and featured on their latest organs.
Over the next few years, Ace grew and grew, working closely with Hammond and the company, under Kakehashi's guidance, designed a number of new guitar amps, effects units, rhythm machines and combo organs, which included their TOP range and the dual-manual GT-7.
In 1971 Kakehashi helped develop the Piper Organ, which was the world's first single-manual organ to incorporate a rhythm accompaniment unit and it went on to become one of Hammond's most popular products EVER!
As Ace grew, so it became more and more attractive to investors and as such, Kakehashi eventually became a minority shareholder in his own company! However, for many years this was not a problem as the majority shareholder, Kazuo Sakata of Sakata Shokaim, also shared an interest in organs and the two got on well. However, things did not stay so rosy forever...
When an industrial company, Sumitomo Chemical, bought Sakata Shokai, they also acquired Ace, but having no understanding or interest in Kakehashi's work, he soon decided to resign from his own company having found working together intolerable. And so it was, in 1972 he walked out on the business that he built up and that was now turning over nearly $40 million per year.
One month after leaving Ace, on 18th April 1972, Kakehashi set up another business called 'Roland Corporation'. Knowing his quality, having worked alongside him for years, the Hammond Organ Company immediately put in an offer for a 60% shareholding stake, but Kakehashi had learned his lesson and had no plans to be a minority shareholder in his own business again, so he decided to go on on his own, using his own money to fund the business.
Kakehashi rented a shed and employed seven staff that had also left Ace Electronics. Using his reputation, Kakehashi manage to convince parts suppliers to offer 90-day payment terms and then aimed to design, build and export a rhythm unit before the bills were due and the 'money-people' came knocking on his door! So there you have it - Roland actually began life in a shed!!!
The decision to export was a clever move by Kakehashi. Yamaha and Kawai had built up huge reputations and were now dominating the Japanese music market. With such competition Roland would have found it nigh-on impossible to earn enough money to survive, despite Kakehashi's drive and ambition.
Kakehashi set out on his travels, firstly to Canada, then to New York and also to Denmark.His intention was to get orders for a rhythm machine based on his reputation and ideas because as of yet, no Roland product existed! In the end he managed to obtain a small number of orders from each company and so he now had the money to fund the design and build processes.
Roland's first ever product was the TR-77, a rhythm-box that allowed you to merge patterns. Also in this range were the TR-55, which had a tabletop design, and the TR-33, which had a cut-out body shape for mounting underneath a piano or organ.
Over the next few years, Roland grew and grew, expanding their range as they went. They produced Japan's first synthesiser, the SH-1000 and are now known as one of the world's leading music companies.
Extract:- Roland Museum & Company History
Roland AT 70 1994
Is this the way to Amarillo - Paul Atterbury
Cherokee - Keith Edwards
Silver Bells organ medley - Anthony Carter
Atelier AT-30 Organ demonstration
Roland AT70 organ
1994:- AT 70 was launched. The smaller AT 50 was launched in the same year.
Roland AT 90 1996
Roland AT90 organ
1996:- the AT 90 and smaller AT 30
Roland AT 80 1997
Earth Wind and Fire Medley - George Fleury Roland AT80 organ
1997:- the AT 80.
Roland AT 'R' range 1990
Spaghetti Western Music Roland AT80R
1990 saw the launch of the R series.
Roland AT 'S' range 2001
2001 saw the 'S' range introduced
Roland AT 5 & AT 15 2002
2002 saw the launch of the baby of the range, the AT 5 and At 15
Roland AT 'SL' range 2004
Gabriels Oboe - AT-80SL
Secret Love - AT-80SL
Jersualem - AT-80SL
Could It Be Magic - AT-90SL
Oye Como Va - AT-90SL
Axel F - AT-90SL
Roland AT-80SL organ
2004 saw the SL range introduced.
Roland AT 900, 800 etc 2009
Super Trouper - Atelier AT 900C
Csardas - AT-900 Platinum Edtion - Hector Olivera
Roland AT-900 organ
2009 brought the 00 range to the market, 800, 900 etc.
Roland Combo AT-350C 2011
Medley - Elizabeth Harrison
Swinging Safari - Elizabeth Harrison
Roland Combo AT-350C
2011 saw the launch of the Combo AT-350C.
Technics SX FA1 Organ
The First Noel alla Bach- Jim Harris
Canadian Sunset
Harbor Lights - Misty - Old Cape Cod
I'm in the Mood for Love
I'm Looking Over a Four Leaf Clover
Technics SX FA1 Organ
Part of the Chicago Musical Instrument Co.
Short demo tune
Various sounds and functions
What makes it work pictures of the insides
Clavoline keyboard

Clavoline information Web page
The Clavioline was designed to be a light portable electronic keyboard aimed at pop musicians of the time and became one of the most popular electronic instruments during the fifties. The Clavioline was a monophonic, portable, battery powered keyboard instrument.
The first version of the instrument appeared in 1947 and was originally designed by M. Constant. Martin in 1947 at his factory in Versailles, France
An expanded concert version was produced in 1953 by René Seybold and Harald Bode, marketed by the Jörgensen Electronic Company of Düsseldorf, Germany
Thomas Organs

Born Free Bob Ralston
Lawrence Welk Show
Edward G. Thomas founded the Thomas Organ Company in 1875. Their first instruments were pipe organs and they later manufactured reed organs as well. Thomas George invented the Thomas electronic organ after having been involved with previous organ developments. In 1956, with the financial backing of Joe Benaron, he reorganized the Thomas Organ Company, headquartered in Sepulveda, California
The first Thomas organs had one manual and about ten stops. These stops were dial controls and operated just like the volume control on a television set. These early models used a shared-generator system, which utilized one generator for every two adjacent notes. Soon, this clumsy system was abandoned and Thomas went to master oscillators. Two-manual and pedal models with a larger number of stop dials were introduced and the dials eventually gave way to conventional stops with a minimum of dials for less important functions.
Thomas went to transistors in a hurry. Because of the room inside the console this saved, more features were developed that put Thomas into a position of eminence. They introduced several features that became standard in the industry. The most important of these was Repeat Percussion, which could be played from either or both manuals. This had great appeal to the organ customer as now one could produce the sounds of a banjo, marimba, mandolin and a host of others automatically. This made its way into all other home and entertainment organs. Another famous feature was Vibra-Magic. When this stop was activated, vibrato was withheld on short notes, but when a note was held longer, vibrato was added gradually to whatever vibrato setting the organist selected. It bore an uncanny resemblance to a violin being played. Thomas also included a trigger-attack percussion and a sustain system for virtually any percussion effect. The built-in Leslie speaker added great richness and depth to the tinny, poorly filtered sounds of the organ.
A unique feature of the Thomas spinets was their 13-note pedal board, which was arced inward to simulate console pedals. They were too small for heel and toe playing and they were only one octave. The Concert Serenade and the Lawrence Welk had two 44-note manuals and 25 short pedals. The VL-5 had the same spinet manuals with a 25-note pedalboard that went under the bench as a console does. The Model 800 Celebrity had two 61-note manuals and a 32-note, flat "Princess (narrow)" pedalboard, but that was later revised to a standard 25-note pedalboard. Their only other 32-note pedalboard organs were the Impresario theatre model, the Model 710 church organ and the Model 900 Palace three-manual theatre organ. These three organs had pedalboards that conformed to A.G.O. specifications.
There was one area of the market that Thomas cornered. They made a successful line of small, inexpensive spinets perfectly geared for home use. The manuals had 37-notes and there were 13 pedals with about a dozen stops and a few dial controls. These "baby" organs had attack percussion, repeat and a Leslie speaker. Not a bad deal for $500.00 in the 1960s! These organs were found in homes and apartments and purchased by parents who wanted to see if the children were interested in playing it. If they were, a trade-in for a better instrument could be made and if there was no interest, not much money was lost.
Heathkit in Michigan manufactured several smaller models of the Thomas organ in kit form. These proved very popular as the price was lower because the customer assembled it himself. Thomas also manufactured organs for Sears, Roebuck & Co. under the name Silvertone and you could buy them at any Sears store.
In the 1960s, the Thomas Organ Company was the importer of Vox combo organs from Italy. This brand of instrument was used by many rock and roll groups, most notably, the Beatles. The Vox Continental was a very popular model. The Thomas Organ Company bought the manufacture rights to the Moog synthesizer. Professional entertainers bought many of these. Thomas produced an organ using the Moog name utilizing the synthesizer. They also produced Thomas Organ Model 370 Monticello, which was a standard spinet and included a built-in synthesizer incorporated into the upper manual with its own division of stops.
In 1979, Thomas Organ Company was one of the first big organ companies to go out of business. It vanished as a corporate entity. In 1997, the Thomas Organ Company was again reorganized using digital technology. Their modern instruments are worthy of note. Their sound is excellent with a wide variety of models to choose from.
Extract from Thomas Organ History
Californian Here I Come Thomas Organ Californian
The Thomas Californian was the first organ to have a Wah pedal built in!
The genuine Crybaby circuit was designed for the broader frequency spectrum of the organ in this case and shared the same pedal as the volume, by kicking in the beginning of the sweep just past full volume.
Extract from You Tube description of the organ. See above.
Thomas Celebrity
Thomas Impresario organ
Thomas Monticello organ
White Elephant CDX-0652
More information to be added soon
Wersi Organs
The Wersi company started in Germany, Europe. In 1969 two brothers (W.E & R. Franz) worked in the basement of their parents' house to produce the first Wersi instruments.
By the 1970s, the company had established a successful kit development system that allowed customers to build the then state of the art instruments in their own home, at their own pace and at considerably reduced costs.
By the mid-1970s, artists such as Franz Lambert and Klaus Wunderlich had switched to playing Wersi on their international tours and records.
The 1980s saw Wersi introduce the CD-Line. The Spectra was the wonder of the 1987 Musikmesse and next to the Wersi Helios, is one of Wersi's biggest selling instruments to date.
In the 1980s two huge factories were constructed in the Wersi-hometown of Halsenbach, Germany. A large concert auditorium, offices, R&D labs, factory production area and metal works and paint spray factory.
In the 1990s, Wersi developed innovations such as the Livestyle upgrade for the CD-Line, Golden Gate, PhonX, Performer and Pegasus keyboard.
In the late 1990s, Wersi developed the OX7 drawbar module and set to work on a totally new generation of instruments... the OpenArt-System (OAS) line.
The OAS instrument line consisted of professional arranger keyboards and organs and are PC based. In 2001, the first version of the OAS instrument line was released running on the unique OAS software.
In 2010, Wersi was purchased by the European musical distribution company, Music Store Professional as the official distributor and by the Chinese musical instruments producer, Medeli. The new Pegasus Wing keyboard was launched at the Musikmesse Frankfurt in April 2011.
Extract from the Wersi Wikipedia page
Wersi Direct Podcast Web icon - link to Wersi Direct web site
Wersi Helios
A tour of the Helios Part 1
A tour of the Helios Part 2
Star Wars - Klaus Wunderlich
Christmas festive medley
Wersi Helios
Wersi Gala
Glenn Miller Medley - Florian Hutter
Samba Medley - Florian Hutter
The Girl from Ipanema - Florian Hutter
Wersi Gala
Wersi Arcus
Somebody Loves Me
John Dalley
From the album Satin, Latin and Swing
Boogie Me
John Dalley
From the album Satin, Latin and Swing
Isnt It Romantic
John Dalley
From the album Satin, Latin and Swing
Wersi Arcus
Wersi Wega

MedleyStef Meeder
Wersi Waga organ
Wersi Spectra
drawbar demo
Wersi Spectra
Wersi Performer
Some Enchanted Evening - Jon Smith
Theatre Organ Medley - Jon Smith
Eine Kleine Nachtmusic - Claire Greig
Ski Sunday - Claire Greig
Wersi Performer
Wersi Scala
Jalousie - David Dunlap
Amor - David Dunlap
Mr Sandman - David Dunlap
Green Eyes - David Dunlap
O Mio Babbino Caro - David Dunlap
I Dreamed A Dream - David Dunlap
Wersi Scala
Russian Medley - Brett Wales
More _ Chris Hopkins
In Concert - Claudia Hirschfeld
Rock n Roll - Franz Lambert
Wersi Louvre
All Time Swing Medley - Florian Hutter
Autumn Leaves - Florian Hutter
Feelings - Florian Hutter
Moonlight Serenade - Florian Hutter
Dornenvögel Rhapsody - Florian Hutter
Cavaquinho - Florian Hutter
Wersi Sonic
Wurlitzer electronic organ
Wurlitzer 555 Orbit III
The tracks below are all played by Bill Skidmore
LP link icon LP link icon LP link icon LP link icon LP link icon LP link icon LP link icon
Wurlitzer 555 organ
The model 555 was a solid state organ that mimicked the four families of organ tone, Flute, Diapason, String and Reed.
In addition to the the instrument generated other sounds using the Orbit III synthesizer. this included sine waves in 16', 8', 6-1/2', 5-1/3', 4', 2-2/3', 1 3/5'. 1-1/3'. The synth also had preset sounds; Reed, Brass, String, Banjo, Harpsichord, Electro Piano, Vibes, Xylophone, Glock & Chimes.
The Orbit III had its own 25 note keyboard above two 44 note keyboards and a 13 note pedal board.
Model 4037
The tracks below feature Glenn Derringer's demo of the Wurlitzer 4037 Organ featuring the then new and unique Orbit 3 Synthesizer.

LP link icon LP link icon LP link icon LP link icon LP link icon LP link icon
Wurlitzer Model 4037
Orbit III
The Orbit III is an unusual, but not at all rare, basic monophonic synthesizer.
It was included as the third manual on many different Wurlitzer home organ models since its introduction in 1971 (models 4037, 4373, 4573, 555 and others).
It has a basic envelope that includes attack and sustain, a filter of sorts (called "wah-wah" - that's the kind of sound it makes), and an LFO (called "modulator" in Wurlitzer parlance). The LFO has settings for rate and "deviation" (depth).
The "second touch" feature is a crude after touch function, which you can assign to affect either the LFO or the "slide" function. Each synthesis function can be completely toggled on and off via push button.
The sound of the synth is modified by a row of organ-style buttons that affect the timbre and the range.
Wyvern is a British company with a proud history of pioneering design and innovation that started in the early 1950's, when Kenneth Burge, a brilliant young electronics engineer began developing designs for early electronic organs, opening his first organ building factory in 1959.
At this time, Arthur Lord, former theatre organist and broadcaster for the BBC, was researching tone generation with his friend Leslie Bourn - then Technical Director of John Compton Organ Company and inventor of electro-magnetic and electrostatic methods of tone production. Arthur Lord joined the company as General Manager.
In 1966 Kenneth Burge founded Wyvern Organs and two years later he invited Arthur Lord to join him as artistic advisor. The company invented many new systems including: "diode-keying" - eliminating "key-click" and Graduated Frequency Attack - a means of varying attack rates for notes of different pitch. These were major advances in early analogue instruments and were copied by other manufacturers throughout the World.
Website icon
Yamaha D1 1959
Yamaha Electone D1
The first Yamaha Electone electronic organ. Used Analog Technology
Extract from the Yamaha Museum web site
Yamaha C-2B 1967
Yamaha Electone C-2B
The Yamaha Electone C-2B Used Analog Technology
Extract from the Yamaha Museum web site
Yamaha EX-21 1968
Yamaha Electone EX-21
The first of Yamaha's ultra-modern stage instruments. The EX-21 was released only as a prototype.
The model number "EX-21" represented the phrase 'The Electone model for the 21st century.'
Extract from the Yamaha Museum web site
Yamaha EX-42 1970
Demonstration - Miguel Kertsman
The Good, The Bad, and The Ugly Theme
There are such things - Hitoshi Toshi Asano
Alice Blue Gown - Hitoshi Toshi Asano
LP link icon LP link icon
Yamaha Electone EX-42
The Yamaha Electone EX-42 was the first of Yamaha's commercially available stage model instruments.
It included two R-60B external speakers and it featured a reinforced fibreglass steel construction.
This instrument was the first Electone to use Integrated Circuits (ICs).
Extract from the Yamaha Museum web site
Yamaha YC-45D 1971
Yamaha YC-45D Organ
Yamaha Electone YC-45D
A portable Electone meant for stage use as a combo organ.
Extract from the Yamaha Museum web site
Yamaha GX-1 1975
shooting stars
Nationalsång - Benny Andersson (audio)
Yamaha Electone GX-1
Conceived for theaters and similar use, the Yamaha Electone GX-1 set the electronic keyboard industry on it's ear. The first polyphonic synthesizer instrument of it's kind, it bridged the gap between organ and synthesizer. The velocity sensitive keyboards allowed true expression of the voices, a concept never before imagined in electronic organs. The smaller solo keyboard was pressure sensitive.
GX-1 voices were "programmed" onto matchbox sized cartridges. Each cartridge had 26 screw-sized dials on them to change the VCO, VCF, VCA and envelope of the voice. 70 cartridges in total were loaded into racks that emerged from the top of the console.
The GX-1 model Electone was first released under GX-707. Rumour has it that when Yamaha realized that the instrument shared the designation of the Boeing 707 aircraft they change the model number to GX-1.
Extract from the Yamaha Museum web site
Yamaha E-70 1977
Walk Through
Denny Hinman demonstration record
Yamaha Electone E70
One of the first home based organs to feature Yamaha's PASS (Pulse Analog Synthesis System) in a console cabinet
Extract Wikipedia
Yamaha FC/FE/FS/FX series 1983 - 1986
Japan Organ Players
Part 1 - Part 2
Len Rawle - Part 1
Len Rawle - Part 2
Axel F - Yamaha FX1 - Douglas Bielanski
LP link icon LP link icon LP link icon
Yamaha Electone FX1
This range of Yamaha Electones featured FM (Frequency Modulation) tone generators and the FX series featured the Yamaha's first digitally sampled sounds for the onboard percussion/rhythm units. The F series Electones were the first to allow users to digitally save registrations via pistons and then save them to RAM packs or an external disk drive unit
Extract Wikipedia
Yamaha HS/HX series 1987
Yamaha HS-8 Tea For Two - Max Takano
Under The Sea + - ?
One Moment in Time - ?
I Will Follow Him - ?
Yamaha HS8
Yamaha HX-1 Buddy Holly - Tony Stace
Phantom selection - Tony Stace
Tico Tico - Max Takano
Take Five - Max Takano

LP link icon - John Walker
Yamaha HX1
Yamaha Electones became more digital at this time. Yamaha used more integrated circuit technology to make components smaller, and hence allowed for a sleeker design.
The The Yamaha HX & HS series was the first to use AWM (Advance Wave Memory) "sampling" technology for both voices and rhythms, and also featured 16-operator FM voices. AWM Voice expansion is also possible via sound packs
The Yamaha HX was distributed in the form of many "mix and match" components, forming the HX-1, HX-3 and HX-5 models depending on which tone generator you used. The unit also featured a choice of three pedalboard units as well as spinet and console keyboards.

Extract various
EL 90 1991
Love Confession
A Whiter Shade of Pale - Peter Hayward
Yamaha EL90
The Yamaha EL90 included an attached Music Disk Recorder which enabled players to record their registrations and performances, thus eliminating the need for extensive programming before each performance.
The Yamaha EL series introduced new synthesizers, filtering, and expression technologies that made instrument voices on the Electone even more realistic. Voice technology continued to be based on AWM and FM technologies.
This range included EL 15, 25, 30, 40, 50, 60, 7, 70, 90 & 90I(white)
Extract Wikipedia
ELX-1 1992
Bach: Fugue in G Major - Gigue - Max Takano
Pomp & Circumstance - Max Takano
Ghostbusters - Max Takano
Merry Christmas, Mr. Lawrence - Max Takano
Bad Romance - Doug Bielanski
Brazil - Doug Bielanski
You'll Never Walk Alone - Doug Bielanski
Blue Danube
Max Takano
Aladdin Suite
Max Takano
Yamaha ELX-1
Designed to be the ultimate Yamah Electone instrument for it's time, this model is available in white with sycamore wood inlayed console, or black with dark walnut inlay console.
The luxurious hardwood console panels were manufactured at the same plant that Lexus automotive hardwood panels were made.
This model was the first Electone to have assignable keyboard percussion, pannable rhythm instruments and per voice effects sections. It also was the first to have two separate solo voice sections.
AR series 1996
Demonstration video
Theatreland - Peter Hayward
Demo - by Chris Magrath
Yamaha AR100
Designed for the American and U.K. markets, the AR-100 seemed to have evolved more from the PSR series of instruments rather than EL series Electones. The rhythms and voicings correspond to the PSR series. Voices are all AWM, no FM.
One of the most outstanding feature of this instrument is the 384 built-in registration menus accessed from the large 320x240 dot LCD panel.
The AR also has an innovative drawbar section using sampled voices instead of generated ones. This allows the user to select from jazz (Hammond B-3), classical (pipe) and theater drawbar voicings.
Extract from the Yamaha Museum web site
EL900 1998
Don Black Tribute - Janet Dowsett
Eleanora - Janet Dowsett
Wherever You Are - Janet Dowsett
Star Wars Medley - Max Takano
jazz - Max Takano
Gypsy- Lord of the Dance- Nessun Dorma - Ryan Edwards
Zampa - Ryan Edwards
Superman - Kim Vaz
Rolling In The Deep - Kim Vaz
Just The Way You Are - Kim Vaz
Yamaha EL900
The first of the 100 series EL's, the EL-900 was the first to use Virtual Acoustic (VA) voices. It also added refinements and extensions to the feature set of the ELX-1
The Yamaha EL 900 was visually similar to the EL90 model from 1991, but with more voices, rhythms and effects.
The EL900 was not available in the UK.
The EL 900i was in white, This model was imported into the UK by Tony Back and caused quite a stir with owners of EL90s who didn't like the AR range.
In 2000 an upgrade was produced and the instrument was renamed the EL900M, the upgrade could be retrofitted to existing EL900 models.
The EL900 was the last Yamaha organ imported into the UK.
Extract various
Yamaha EL-100
How Deep Is Your Love - Darryl Waffy Paloay
And I Love Her - Darryl Waffy Paloay
Devil's Dance - Yofve Chandra
Moon River
Yamaha EL-100
Replacing the Yamaha EL-17, the new entry level Yamaha EL-100instrument was an incredible buy.
It was the first entry-level Electone model to have a built-in MDR. This signified Yamaha's efforts to make superior Electone features available at a more attractive price point.
Extract from the Yamaha Museum web site
Stagea 2004
Demonstration medley - ELS 01X 1
Demonstration - ELS-01C
Total Eclipse of the heart - ELS-01C
yamaha Stagea ELS-01X
In 2004, Yamaha launched the Stagea series. This series uses all AWM (Advanced Wave Memory) voices and features over 180 digital effects, built-in registration menus, VA (Virtual Acoustic) voices, and a Style-File compatible expanded rhythm and accompaniment section. AWM is the proprietary sound sampling technology of Yamaha.
ELS-01: The standard model
ELS-01C: The custom model, carrying the ability to utilise the VA voices, Pitch and Tempo Bends, After touch on the pedal keyboard, horizontal touch and after pitch, along with other features, and lastly,
ELS-01X: The professional model - taking the ELS-01C, it adds 61-note keyboards, a 25-note pedal board and XLR external audio jacks.
The Stagea ELS-01 series was officially distributed only in Asian countries.
Extract Wikipedia
ELB-01 2006
Butterfly Lovers - Cindy Wan
Let it Be - Cindy Wan
Demonstration Movie - Nakagawa Mina
Yamaha Stagea ELB-01
In 2006, Yamaha added the ELB-01 model to the lineup. This is a students' model, with 245 AWM voices and 133 accompaniment rhythms, but without voice or rhythm editing capabilities
Extract Wikipedia
D-Deck 2008
Demonstration Movie
James Bond theme
Magnificent 7 - Marco Cerbella
Ghostbusters - Marco Cerbella
Hymn To The Fallen - Marco Cerbella
Orange Sunshine - Marco Cerbella
Yamaha Stagea D-Deck
In 2008, Yamaha added The D-Deck (DDK-7 in some markets), which is the portable version of the ELS-01 with a more compact body, 61 keys on the lower keyboard and an optional pedalboard. The D-Deck comes with all the features of the ELS-01, with the additions also of Organ Flute voices and a second expression pedal.
Extract Wikipedia
Type U 2009
Yamaha Stagea Type U
In 2009, the Stagea type U series was launched, with only hardware differences between them and their original counterparts. The type U version omitted the floppy drive UD-FD01 and the Smart-Media card slot.
Extract Wikipedia
Stagea ELS-02 2014
Circle of Life (Lion King) - Max Takano
Radetzky March - Max Takano
Tico Tico - Max Takano
Star Wars Medley - Max Takano
Yamaha Stagea ELS-02
In April 2014, Yamaha launched the STAGEA ELS-02 series. This series features Super Articulation voices, on top of over 900 AWM sounds, 96 VA voices, pedalboard polyphony, effects, and 566 accompaniment rhythms. The ELS-01, ELS-01C and ELS-01X can also be upgraded to the current series by the use of a "Vitalize" unit.
The Yamaha Stagea ELS-02 series currently has three models:
  • Yamaha ELS-02: The standard model, with 506 AWM voices including Super Articulation voices, 506 accompaniment rhythms, and hundreds of audio effects.
  • Yamaha ELS-02C: The custom model. Other than all the features of the ELS-02, it has an additional 60 AWM voices, VA voices, Organ Flutes voices (with digital drawbars), a second expression pedal, horizontal keyboard touch, and pedal board aftertouch.
  • Yamaha ELS-02X: The professional model, which contains all the features of the ELS-02C but with both keyboards expanded to 61 keys and the pedalboard expanded to 25 full pedals.

Unlike the first Yamaha Stagea series, the Yamaha Stagea ELS-02 series is distributed in both Asia and Mexico.

Extract Wikipedia
Yamaha Stagea ELB-02
Harry Potter Theme - Michael Sun
For the first time in forever - Michael Sun
Yamaha Stagea ELB-02
In May 2016, the Yamaha ELB-02 model was launched as a revamp of the ELB-01 model with more voices and rhythms added as well as the "after touch" feature on the upper and lower keyboards.